Jean-Paul Akayesu (born ) is a former teacher, school inspector, and Republican . External links[edit]. ICTR case documents for Jean Paul Akayesu. Warning: This case deals with topics that are especially grave and may cause trauma invoked by memories of past abuse. If you have. The case arose out of the massacres of perhaps a million Tutsi in Rwanda in Akayesu was mayor.2 A trial chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for.

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Due to the overall protective and humanitarian purpose of these international legal instruments, however, the delimitation of this category of persons bound by the provisions in Common Csae 3 and Additional Protocol II should not be too restricted. At least for those rules which are neither incorporated into Rwandan legislation nor self-executing? Akayesu is serving his sentence in a prison in Mali.

The four Geneva Conventions — as well akxyesu the two Additional Protocols — as stated above, were adopted primarily to protect the victims as well as potential victims of armed conflicts. Must he be a public agent for one of the parties? As regards individual criminal responsibility for serious violations of Common Article 3, the ICTY has already affirmed this principle in the Tadic case.

Similarly, the Chamber notes that the ICRC commentary on Common Article 3 suggests useful criteria resulting from the various amendments discussed during the Diplomatic Conference of Geneva,inter alia: Must the State of which the accused is a national be a party to the Convention on Genocide?

Akayesi deserted the French Army in to akwyesu the National The Trial Chamber, held that this approach would allow application of Must the act be linked to the conflict? That the Party in revolt akayeau the de jure Government possesses an organized military force, an authority responsible for its acts, acting within a determinate territory and having the means of respecting and ensuring the respect for the Convention.

The Prosecution also presented four grounds of appeal.

ICTR, The Prosecutor v. Jean-Paul Akayesu | How does law protect in war? – Online casebook

If you have experienced violence and need assistance, please refer to this list of country akayeus lines provided by UN Women. All of the guarantees, as enumerated in Article 4 reaffirm and supplement Common Article 3 and, as discussed above, Common Article 3 being customary in nature, the Chamber is of the opinion akyaesu these guarantees did also at the time of the events alleged in the Indictment form part of existing international customary law.

Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. The Security Council, when delimiting cass subject-matter jurisdiction of the ICTR, incorporated violations of international humanitarian law which may be committed in the context of both an international and an internal armed conflict: By virtue of his authority, Akeyesu sent a akayesj message of official tolerance for sexual violence. Under ground 2, the Accused argues that he had been denied the right to a competent attorney para.


Since it entertained the first ground of appeal, the Appeals Chamber deemed it unnecessary to consider the Prosecution’s alternative ground of appeal paras. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group paragraph b Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group does not necessarily mean that the harm is permanent and irremediable. Article 3, 4 2 e of Additional Protocol II.

Jean Paul AKAYESU facilitated the commission of the sexual violence, beatings and murders by allowing the sexual violence and beatings and murders to occur on or near the bureau communal premises. Before his election as mayor of Taba, he was first a teacher, then education inspector. He held this position until Octavien Ngenzi Special intent of a crime is the specific intention, required as a constitutive element of the crime, which demands that the perpetrator clearly seeks to produce the act charged.

Further, as pertains to the intensity of conflict, all observers to the events, including UNAMIR and UN Special rapporteurs, were unanimous in characterizing the confrontation between the two forces as a war, an internal armed conflict.

He also had cxse power over the gendarmes national police force in the area. Trial Watch would like to remind its users that any person charged by national or international authorities is presumed innocent until proven guilty. Khaled Nezzar was born on 25 December in Seriana, Algeria. This was in line with the view of the ICTY Appeals Chamber stipulating that Common Article 3 beyond doubt formed part of customary international law, and further that there exists a corpus of general principles and norms on internal armed conflict embracing Common Article 3 but having a much greater scope.

For the first four wkayesu these, there is mention only of Common Article 3 as the subject matter jurisdiction of the particular alleged offences, whereas count 15 makes an additional reference to Additional Protocol II. Can we assume that the acts committed by Akayesu were prohibited under Rwandan criminal law? Pages within this section: Footnotes [] Trial Judgment, paras and emphasis added. According to this meaning, special intent is the key element of an intentional offence, which offence is characterized by a psychological relationship between the physical result and the mental state of the perpetrator.

Appeals Chamber [ Source: Therefore, a common criterion in the four types of groups protected by the Genocide Convention is that membership in such groups would seem to be normally not challengeable by its members, who belong to it automatically, by birth, in a continuous and often irremediable manner.

The commentary thereon specifies that this applicability is irrespective of casf exact location of the affected person in the territory of the State engaged in the conflict. Genocide is distinct from other crimes inasmuch as it embodies a special intent or dolus specialis.


Akayesu raised an issue of unlawful disclosure of defence witness statements para. Akayesu was charged with five counts under Article 4 of the Statute and was acquitted on each of the said counts.

Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group paragraph e With respect to forcibly transferring children of the group to another group, the Chamber is of the opinion that, as in the case of measures intended to prevent births, the objective is not only to sanction a direct casee of forcible physical transfer, but also to sanction acts of threats or trauma which would lead to the forcible transfer skayesu children from one group to another.

The tribunal considered that cawe violence, including rape, need not necessarily manifest itself through a demonstration of physical force. The militia killed them with clubs, machetes, small axes and sticks. Is there a difference of applicability between Art.

All these counts are covered by Article 4 of the Statute. The court clarified that Genocide is a specific crime that takes the accused outside of the scope of armed conflict. Threats, intimidation, aiayesu and other forms of duress which prey on fear or desperation may constitute coercion, and coercion may be inherent in certain circumstances, such as armed conflict or the military presence of Interahamwe among refugee Tutsi women at the bureau communal.

Under ground 6, the Accused submitted that the Trial Chamber had erred in the way it had treated hearsay evidence para.

Jean-Paul Akayesu

Evidence presented in relation to paragraphs of the Indictment, namely the testimony of Major-General Dallaire, has shown there to have been a civil war between two groups, being on the one side, the governmental forces, the FAR, and on the other side, the RPF. Thus, if an offence, as per count 15, is charged under both Common Article 3 and Additional Protocol II, it will not suffice to apply Common Article 3 and take for granted that Article 4 of the Statute, hence Additional Protocol II, is therefore automatically applicable.

Indiscussions began under the direction of the President of the Republic of Rwanda about the possible use of traditional courts to support the xkayesu Rwandan judicial system and the ICTR. Sentenced to life imprisonment.

It has been shown that there was a conflict between, on the one hand, the RPF, under the command of General Kagame, and, on the other, the governmental forces, the FAR. In this case, the Aakyesu heard charges brought against Jean Paul Akayesu, bourgmestre of Taba commune during this period.