Java | Class & Object Relationship - The Revisionist
This will lead to a shaky relationship. The part- ners come from different social classes and do not complement each other in the unconscious fit. Their personal . Study Object Relations Family Therapy flashcards from Dan Moore's Alliance Graduate School of Counseling class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android. Today, we have a beginner's introduction to object relations theory. Right from the start, let me acknowledge that I have difficulty writing about obj.
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His object relations are in alignment with his experience of the world and criticism is suspended. Other times, the audience can be intrusive. Out of the blue, a rotten tomato is thrown at Robert's head. A torrent of unexpectedly harsh criticisms of his performance interrupts his dealings with the real world. Or, perhaps, a gentle, soothing sense of acceptance and love sweeps over him as he reads a novel late at night.
On still other occasions, the audience may start arguing among themselves.
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Now the members of the audience may not all be exactly human. Granted, the most advanced of them look completely human. These patrons are well known to Robert and he sees them as reliable and fairly predictable.
He has known them through good times and bad. Robert knows these patrons well. He sees them as reliable and fairly predictable. Some in the audience look only mostly human.
8.1 Java | Class & Object Relationship
Their features are somehow not quite fully developed. Robert only knows one side of them. This part of the crowd can be confusing and unpredictable to Robert.
Then we have gooey, blob-like creatures. They are the least advanced persons in attendance. These are the raw, primitive introjects. Some are scarier than Frankenstein. Others are purely and exquisitely pleasurable and intoxicating. Even the gratifying blobs can be dangerous, though. There is a threat that they can consume you in their gooeyness. Think of the allure of an urge to regress back to being a coddled, dependent child in times of high conflict.
In our metaphor, the more psychologically mature a person becomes, then the more that the audience will look fully human. It is likely that the psychologically mature person will not have multiple representations of significant persons.
Instead, the mature person will have integrated the various experiences with, say, his mother into a coherent whole. If Robert regresses or if a person is psychologically immature, then the audience begins to look more like the gooey blobs. There will be multiple representations of the same person, split off from each other. The blobs can unexpectedly shift positions depending on what is happening either in the real world or in the audience itself.
This should be adequate for our current purposes. There are many elements left out of this metaphor. For instance, I did not mention the drives interacting with the audience.
Nor did I get into how object relations mesh with the various structures of the mind, e. Well-formed humans are in the superego or ego ideal.
The left side is fueled by the libido and the right side is powered by the aggressive drive. Those in the middle either are decathected or are unrelated to the current experience with the world.
The interactions between infant and mother are so deep and intense that they form the focus of the infant's structure of drives. Some of these interactions provoke anger and frustration; others provoke strong emotions of dependence as the child begins to recognize the mother is more than a breast from which to feed.
These reactions threaten to overwhelm the individuality of the infant. The way in which the infant resolves the conflict, Klein believed, is reflected in the adult's personality. Fairbairn took a radical departure from Freud by positing that humans were not seeking satisfaction of the drive, but actually seek the satisfaction that comes in being in relation to real others.
Klein and Fairbairn were working along similar lines, but unlike Fairbairn, Klein always held that she was not departing from Freudian theory, but simply elaborating early developmental phenomena consistent with Freudian theory. Within the London psychoanalytic community, a conflict of loyalties took place between Klein and object relations theory sometimes referred to as "id psychology" and Anna Freud and ego psychology.
In America, Anna Freud heavily influenced American psychoanalysis in the s, s, and s. In London, those who refused to choose sides were termed the "middle school," whose members included Michael Balint and D. A certain division developed in England between the school of Anna Freud and that of Melanie Klein,   which later influenced psychoanalytic politics worldwide. Freud garnered an American allegiance. He identified how people who were abused as children internalize that experience.
Fairbairn's "moral defense" is the tendency seen in survivors of abuse to take all the bad upon themselves, each believing he is morally bad so his caretaker object can be regarded as good. This is a use of splitting as a defense to maintain an attachment relationship in an unsafe world. Fairbairn introduced a four-year-old girl with a broken arm to a doctor friend of his.
He told the little girl that they were going to find her a new mommy. If she accepted her mother was bad, then she would be bereft and alone in the world, an intolerable state. She used the Moral Defense to make herself bad, but preserve her mother's goodness.
Kleinian object relations theory[ edit ] Unconscious phantasy [ edit ] Klein termed the psychological aspect of instinct unconscious phantasy deliberately spelled with 'ph' to distinguish it from the word 'fantasy'. Phantasy is a given of psychic life which moves outward towards the world. These image-potentials are given a priority with the drives and eventually allow the development of more complex states of mental life.
I want to suggest that the origin of thought lies in this process of testing phantasy against reality; that is, that thought is not only contrasted with phantasy, but based on it and derived from it.
In Bion's terms, the phantasy image is a preconception that will not be a thought until experience combines with a realization in the world of experience. The preconception and realization combine to take form as a concept that can be thought.
The instinctual rooting is the preconception.
Object relations theory
The provision of the nipple provides the realization in the world of experience, and through time, with repeated experience, the preconception and realization combined to create the concept.
Mental capacity builds upon previous experience as the environment and infant interact. The first bodily experiences begin to build up the first memories, and external realities are progressively woven into the texture of phantasy.
And these plastic images and dramatic representations of phantasy are progressively elaborated along with articulated perceptions of the external world.
Introjection of the good object is also used by the ego as a defense against anxiety. The processes of splitting off parts of the self and projecting them into objects are thus of vital importance for normal development as well as for abnormal object-relation. The effect of introjection on object relations is equally important. It comes to form a focal point in the ego and makes for cohesiveness of the ego.
The introjection of the good breast provides a location where one can hide from persecution, an early step in developing a capacity to self-soothe. Ogden  identifies four functions that projective identification may serve. As in the traditional Kleinian model, it serves as a defense. Projective identification serves as a mode of communication.
The paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions occur in the pre-oedipal, oral phase of development. In contrast to Fairbairn and later Guntrip,  Klein believed that both good and bad objects are introjected by the infant, the internalization of good object being essential to the development of healthy ego function.
Paranoid-schizoid position[ edit ] The paranoid-schizoid position is characterized by part object relationships. Part objects are a function of splitting, which takes place in phantasy. At this developmental stage, experience can only be perceived as all good or all bad. As part objects, it is the function that is identified by the experiencing self, rather than whole and autonomous others. The hungry infant desires the good breast who feeds it.
Should that breast appear, it is the good breast. If the breast does not appear, the hungry and now frustrated infant in its distress, has destructive phantasies dominated by oral aggression towards the bad, hallucinated breast.
Projection is an attempt to eject the bad in order to control through omnipotent mastery. Splitting is never fully effective, according to Klein, as the ego tends towards integration. The splitting and part object relations that characterize the earlier phase are succeeded by the capacity to perceive that the other who frustrates is also the one who gratifies. Schizoid defenses are still in evidence, but feelings of guilt, grief, and the desire for reparation gain dominance in the developing mind.
In the depressive position, the infant is able to experience others as whole, which radically alters object relationships from the earlier phase. It is only in the depressive position that polar qualities can be seen as different aspects of the same object.
In a development which Grotstein terms the "primal split", : With the awareness of the primal split, a space is created in which the symbol, the symbolized, and the experiencing subject coexist. History, subjectivity, interiority, and empathy all become possible. In fact or phantasy, one now realizes the capacity to harm or drive away a person who one ambivalently loves. The defenses characteristic of the depressive position include the manic defenses, repression and reparation.
The manic defenses are the same defenses evidenced in the paranoid-schizoid position, but now mobilized to protect the mind from depressive anxiety. As the depressive position brings about an increasing integration in the ego, earlier defenses change in character, becoming less intense and allow increasing awareness of psychic reality. Unconscious guilt for destructive phantasies arises in response to the continuing love and attention provided by caretakers.