Does potency predict clinical efficacy? Illustration through an antihistamine model.
possible that efficacy and potency can exhibit differential relation- ships with performance. produce, market, and sell the product (low potency). The predic-. To directly compare the efficacy and potency of alpha-PVP with that of MDPV. ( alpha-PVP; aka “gravel” or “flakka”) in the recreational market. . The tether was filled with the drug solution prior to connection to the catheter. Potency is the concentration (EC50) or dose (ED50) of a drug the exam candidate to "define and explain dose-effect relationships of drugs.
We expand this discussion on climate consensus to include interpersonal climate quality, positioning the latter as a moderator, in order to examine the next supposition.
Team Potency and Its Impact on Performance via Self-efficacy and Adaptability
Interpersonal climate quality moderates the relationship between team potency and sales person adaptability, making it stronger. Wang and Netemeyer showed a relationship between self-efficacy and individual results. Complimenting this, Lindel and Brandt point out that "the incremental variance of climate consensus and its interaction with climate quality in predicting organizational outcomes" p.
There is evidence of a moderating effect for climate quality in the relationship between team potency and individual self-efficacy through two conditions: First, Bitner, Booms and MohrJong et al. Such an association is seen to improve team potency and elevate individual capacity i.
Efficacy vs. Potency
Second, we believe that teams which exhibit high potency - collective belief in the team - have sales personnel that present higher than average levels of self-efficacy when combined with an environment that is conducive of good interpersonal climate. This is even better if there is a higher level of information exchange Hughes et al.
Such elements foment an environment with better quality interpersonal relationships and with this the climate can have an amplifying role in the relationship, as a moderator. Interpersonal climate quality moderates the relationship between team potency and self-efficacy, making it stronger. Indirect effects of potency Verbeke et al. Based upon this consolidated discovery, we suggest a mediating effect for adaptability in the relationship between potency and performance.
The argument we present here centers on the fact that teams with potency exhibit support behavior and information exchange, which are related to adaptability Hughes et al. These two elements i. Support and information exchange tend to facilitate the adjustment of sales activities, which tend to impact, by consequence, sales person performance. Furthermore, Weitz, Sujan and Sujan suggested that an individual sales person's knowledge capacity, coming from self-management and the environment elements which help team potencyleads to adaptation, which is associated with performance.
Sales person adaptability mediates the relationship between Team Potency and performance. According to Gist and Mitchellthere are three elements that lead to self-efficacy. Analysis of task demands, that is, how much of an assigned task is within the professional's skill set. When skill set is greater, task engagement is also greater. Third, analysis of the number of skills that are necessary to execute the task with motivation. We believe that these three elements primarily the mechanism about skill quantity discussed by Guzzo et al.
In this context, self-efficacy can be the mechanism that transmits the indirect effect of team potency on performance through these three elements. Another mechanism that might help explain the mediating effect is communication-cooperation.
This proposal shows that conversation processes between individuals and mutual collaboration tend to result in better performance, feeding back into the team. Therefore, team potency influences communication-cooperation, which in turn elevates self-efficacy, which promotes better sales person performance.
Sales person self-efficacy mediates the relationship between Team Potency and performance. The proposed conceptual model contemplates team-level variables of team potency and interpersonal climate quality, which take the form of a crosshatch pattern in the conceptual model.
The other elements of self-efficacy, adaptability and performance are measured at the individual level. The preponderant role of team potency as a direct source of individual aspects and indirect source of performance, via the two mediators self-efficacy and adaptability, is predominant.
Interpersonal climate quality as a moderator is also evident. In Figure 1the solid arrows denote a direct effect while the broken arrows denote moderating effects. The gray boxes represent team-level data and white boxes represent individual-level data. The company's sales structure consists of regional, national, and branch managers. Each of the branches exclusively sells company products. Branches have common goals for salespeople and for teams and results are compared at the branch, regional and national levels.
To collect data, the company's marketing director sent a link about the research to employees via the internet. We defined a group or team as those with a minimum of 2 respondents per branch, which resulted in 54 groups. Next, we entered into contact with the other branches, that had not initially responded, asking for responses from salespeople to the mailed survey. Finally, the company organized training with all of the branches, during which, with authorization from the marketing director, we were able to apply the questionnaire to branches that had not previously responded.
In order to measure the theoretical model constructs we used scales that had already been validated in the literature.
These are presented in the conceptual definitions, and Annex A describes operational definitions. Annex B shows adjustments to the model. According to Jonesself-efficacy is the individual belief about self-capacity to organize and execute actions required for completing tasks, in line with Jong, Ruyter and Lemmink and Wood and Bandura In our work, the self-efficacy construct is operationalized by 6 items adapted from Jones According to Spiro and Weitzadaptability is a professional's capacity to adapt their behavior to customers' interpersonal demands.
This construct is operationalized by 7 items adapted from Spiro and Weitz In relation to measuring subjective performance in sales, the questionnaire includes items about reaching goals, professional performance and achieving objectives.
Thus, following Verhoef and Leeflang's proposal, this work uses four measurements to measure subjective sales performance. For Guzzo, Yost, Campbell and Sheateam potency is the collective belief that the team can be effective. This construct is measured by 5 items adapted from Guzzo et al. According to Ahearne et al. Marks, Mathieu and Zaccaro defined interpersonal climate quality as the individual perception and collective belief about team capacity for managing conflicts in a positive manner, about motivation and trust-building among the team.
This construct is operationalized by 3 items from Ahearne et al. Salesperson responses were transformed into a team average, following the same procedure for team potency and conforming to Ahearne et al. Control variables included total sales experience in amount of time, total amount of time working at the company, time working on the sales team, and salesperson age, all measured in years. The choice of these variables was made because a they were used in other studies Ahearne et al.
After developing the questionnaire with the cited scales, three marketing students answered it. This was done as a pre-test, which shows the face validity of the instrument for collecting data.
Then the questionnaire was applied to a graduate-level class of 35 individuals and the results were analyzed. This analysis demonstrated that one of the self-efficacy items, originally a reverse question, compromised the capture of construct variation.
Efficacy vs. Potency - Pharmacology - Medbullets Step 1
Thus, the question was transformed to be positively worded. Based upon this pre-testing, the instrument was adjusted, consolidated and implemented in the present research. Model specifications In order to examine the hypotheses, we estimated three models using multiple regression. The first model presents only the salesperson covariates' impact on performance.
The second model describes the association of the covariates and the main effects of the sales persons on performance. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. March Learn how and when to remove this template message This scientific article needs additional citations to secondary or tertiary sources such as review articles, monographs, or textbooks.
- Does potency predict clinical efficacy? Illustration through an antihistamine model.
- Potency (pharmacology)
Please add such references to provide context and establish the relevance of any primary research articles cited. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message In the field of pharmacologypotency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
The potency depends on both the affinity and efficacy. Efficacy is the relationship between receptor occupancy and the ability to initiate a response at the molecular, cellular, tissue or system level. In other words, efficacy refers to how well an action is took after the drug is bound to a receptor. In pharmacology, a high efficacy usually means that a drug has worked since the drug caused the receptor to metabolize a certain compound extremely well. Therefore, it makes sense that a drug's effectiveness, potency, is affected by how well the drug can bind to a receptor, affinity, and how it is able to cause a reaction in the receptor when bound, efficacy.