Classical Chinese poetry forms
Sample schema showing relationship between literary forms and subforms Sonnet – A line lyric poem written in iambic pentameter, having a specific. Classical Chinese poetry forms are those poetry forms, or modes which typify the traditional .. in addition, almost all of them deal with the relationship between the ruler and his officials. Regulated verse, or jintishi includes three subforms. We could equally ask whether comics are concrete poems. whether one sort of art form is identical to, or a sub-form, of another art form. poem contain non- textual, purely visual elements), the relationship between the two.
In accordance with transformation theory, references to classical antiquity or any other text, body of texts, work of art, or culture forge a dynamic and recip- rocally dependent interrelation between the source and the target cultures, enacting a mutual construction of self and other. In the act of referencing, the target material not only draws on the source material, but also exerts its own influence upon the source. As a result the object of reference is not a stable, fixed, or invariant entity, but something which itself is reconstituted by the act of referencing, i.
This paper is thus divided into two parts, one focusing on ancient Latin love po- etry, and a second focusing more specifically on Latin love poetry composed in Fer- rara by Tito Vespasiano Strozzi.
I will try to detect transformations of antiquity not only in the reception of topics and motifs and other intertextual procedures, but also in the socio-cultural context. To do this I will take into consideration literary cir- cles the neoterics for Catullus, Messalla for Tibullus, Maecenas for Vergil, Horace and Propertius, the courts of Roman emperors such as Domitian for Martial and Sta- tiusboth as they are presented in ancient poetry itself and as they are later per- ceived.
This is important for an analysis of the way in which allusions function in a small circle of poets, serving both to consolidate a group and to nobilise that group. Parker offers another overview of Renaissance Latin elegy. On lyric poetry, including elegy, cf. Robert47, on the eclectic and pluralistic poetics of love poetry and on the amalgamation of Roman love poetry and compatible elements of vernacular and Latin poetry. There is, however, no doubt that the elegiac genre was the main point of reference.
Such oversimplification, however, is not rare, even among the ancient elegists; it has to do with the widespread practice of biographical interpretation in Antiquity.
Are Concrete Poems Comics? |
But there is not only one puella; there are many puellae. There are also male beloveds: In keeping with the more complicated elegiac relationship between amator and puella eStrozzi at first concentrates on Anthia; subsequently, in the years following when Strozzi introduces other loves to the Eroticon, there are fewer allusions to that particular puella.
Holzbergpassim. The amatory novel does not, however, follow a fixable and chronological plot, but consists of episodes and elegiac situations. Holzberg55 — Naturally, the persona of the poeta-amator must be distinguished from the historical author.
The inner-generic tradition maintains the fiction of personal experience. This makes her a scripta puella — a creation of the poet. In collections of ancient love poetry, there are also panegyric passages, in many cases in the form of a recusatio, an alleged refusal to write poetry of a higher genre or status, often singing the praises of a high ranking person sometimes the emperor.
Thus the heterogeneous subject matter of elegiac collections in the Renaissance, which is sometimes misconceived as a softening of generic standards, is in fact equally typical of the ancient collections. I will point out direct and indirect strategies of poetic self-canonization within a certain tradition. Cynthia quin etiam versu laudata Properti, hos inter si me ponere Fama volet.
Such are the songs that wanton Catullus wrote, whose Lesbia is better known than Helen. Such things also the pages of learned Calvus did confess, when he sang of the death of hapless Quin- tilia; and dead Gallus too, that of late laved in the streams of Hell the many wounds dealt him by fair Lycoris. Nay, Cynthia also has been glorified by Propertius — if Fame shall grant me a place mid such as they. So long as Cupid wields his fires and bends his bow, your metres, skilled Tibullus, will be re- membered.
In the West and in the East the name of Gallus shall be known to fame, and because of Gallus, the name of Lycoris will live on. He wants to show the princeps Augustus that there is no infamy attached to the works of his predecessors and that none should be attached to hisbut this concrete context is often neglected in favour of the catalogue itself. The same applies mutatis mutandis for the puella. Credere iuranti durum putat esse Tibullus, sic etiam de se quod neget illa viro: Invenies eadem blandi praecepta Properti: His ego successi, quoniam praestantia candor nomina vivorum dissimulare iubet.
Tibullus thinks it hard to believe his lady under oath because she makes the same denials about himself to her lord. I was their successor, for generosity bids me withhold the names of prominent living men. Tibullus was thy successor, Gal- lus, and Propertius his; after them came I, fourth in order of time.
In Epigram VIII 73, Martial continues the list of famous Latin love poets in a humor- ous summary of the literary history of Roman love poetry with its most known rep- resentatives: Instanti, quo nec sincerior alter habetur pectore nec nivea simplicitate prior, si dare vis nostrae vires animosque Thaliae et victura petis carmina, da quod amem. Cynthia te vatem fecit, lascive Properti; ingenium Galli pulchra Lycoris erat; fama est arguti Nemesis formosa Tibulli; Lesbia dictavit, docte Catulle, tibi: Instantius, than whom no one is reputed more sincere in heart, or more eminent for unsullied simplicity, if you wish to give strength and spirit to my muse, and desire of me verses which shall live, give me something to love.
Cynthia made playful Propertius a poet; the fair Lycoris was the genius of Gallus. In my opinion, this epigram constitutes a central passage in the tradition of the inner-poetic literary history of ancient love poets. Martial transforms the literary fig- ure of the mistress into a real person and assigns her a concrete function: He highlights the socio-cultural context of composing love poetry in Rome: Martial does the same in his epigrams.
Me retinent vinctum formosae vincla puellae. Nauta ; White and ; Zetzel For the character of Renaissance patronage cf. Me tenet ignotis aegrum Phaeacia terris. Several activities and discourses military, rural, religious, prophetic, erotic intermingle here. Propertius mentions several amici, patrons and rivals e. Dum tibi Cadmeae dicuntur, Pontice, Thebae armaque fraternae tristia militiae atque, ita sim felix, primo contendis Homero sint modo fata tuis mollia carminibus nos, ut consuemus, nostros agitamus amores, atque aliquid duram quaerimus in dominam.
The first poem of the second book, addressed to Maecenas, has a programmatic statement as well. Tunc mihi, quails eris, longos turbata capillos, obvia nudato, Delia, curre pede. Friends and pa- trons crop up in these collections of love poems and a learned and intimate literary circle is constructed.
The poems, written in the first person and directed to a second person, serve to elevate the addressee and enable poetic self-fashioning.
Love poetry does not limit itself to the topic of love, and the topic of love does not only serve to describe subjective feelings and a closed two-person relationship; it also integrates the social context.Access 2016 Relationships and adding Sub Form
The programmatic poems to Maecenas and Augus- tus, in particular, which use such strategies, have been productively received in the aftermath. It is no coincidence that there are several parallels linking the poetry of the Au- gustan age, to that of the Roman Empire, that of the court of Charlemagne, the court of Este in Ferrara and the Aragonese court in Naples.
Sed mihi deficient scribendis carmina gestis Nec faciunt cymbae grandia vela meae. Attamen in magnis sat erit voluisse. Voluntas Ac stadium fuerint gloria summa mihi. Tanta etenim, Leonelle, tuae monumenta supersunt Virtutis, laudum gloria tanta nitet. Omnia facundo quae sunt memoranda poetae Et quae sunt celsis cuncta canenda modis. Nevertheless, it will be enough to have aspired to great things and my will and enthusiasm shall be my highest glory.
Indeed, Leonellus, such great monument of your vir- tue remain, and so much glory shines forth to your praises; all of it must be immortalized by an eloquent poet and must be sung in the most splendid rhythms. Yuefu Yuefu were a development of the forms of poetic literature collected by or edited by the Han Dynasty Music Bureau.
In later dynasties the term yuefu "Music Bureau" was used to identify these officially propagated ballad-style poems, as well as being used as a descriptor for poems in the yuefu style, as it came to be elaborated by following poets.
These later yuefu were sometimes distinguished from the classic anthology pieces by qualifying these yuefu as "new" or "literary" "yuefu". New yuefu This is the style, consisting of several subdivisions, of those poems based upon the poems and the style of the poems of the former Han Dynasty Music Bureau, after it had ceased to exist. New pattern poems jintishi Main article: Regulated verse Regulated verse, or jintishi  includes three subforms. Although, to a quick glance not necessarily all that different from regular line length yuefu in terms of line length in characters per line, or numbers of lines, there are internally a whole "new" at the time of their introduction, in the Tang dynasty set of rules or regulations, for example regarding tonal patterns, parallelism, repetition of characters.
Eight-line Regulated Verse lushi Main article: Lushi poetry Lushi  refers to the regulated, or strict formal rules, of this poetry form. It is most associated with the eight-line style, although the same rules basically apply to the curtailed form jueju and the expanded form pailu.
Five-character eight-line regulated verse wulu A form of regulated verse with eight lines of five characters each.
Six-character eight-line regulated verse is relatively rare. Seven-character eight-line regulated verse qilu A form of regulated verse with eight lines of seven characters each. Curtailed form jueju Main article: Jueju The curtailed form is sometimes referred to as a quatrain due to its requirement to consist of four lines. Basically, the jueju is a shortened version of the eight-line version, resulting in a verse form which can more challenging in terms of conveying a complete poem or developing a complete poetic concept; this is, indeed, especially the case with the five-character line version.
Five-character four-line curtailed verse wujue  Also known as the Five-character-quatrain, this form of regulated verse is characterized by four lines of five characters each. Seven-character four-line curtailed verse qijue  Main article: Qijue Also known as the Seven-character-quatrain, this is a form of regulated verse with four lines of seven characters each.
Expanded form pailu Main article: Pailu While embracing all, or most of, the lushi rules and regulations the pailu allows for a number of linked couplets with no maximum upward limit. A strict emphasis on formal parallelism is typical of the pailu form. Fixed tone-pattern poetry Poems based on traditional structures, originally meant as lyrics to go along with particular musical tunes or scoring, included in the fixed tone-pattern forms are the ci, qu, and yuanqu.
One-act play — A short play that takes place in one act e. Five-act play — A play that takes place in five acts e. Screenplay — A sequence of instructions designed for producing a motion picture, including character and scene descriptions, dialogue, and sometimes, camera positions and movement. Often a screenplay is an adaptation of an existing drama or novel e.
Poetry — Text in rhythmic or metric form, often employing rhyme; usually shorter and more concentrated in language and ideas than either prose or drama; poetic language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to its meaning. Sonnet — A line lyric poem written in iambic pentameter, having a specific thematic structure and rhyme scheme e.
Ode — A lyric poem that is serious and thoughtful in tone with a formal stanzaic structure e. Epic — An extended narrative recounting actions, travels, adventures, and heroic episodes and written in a high style e. Ballade — A poem, usually with three stanzas of seven, eight, or ten lines and a shorter final stanza or envoy of four or five lines.
Each stanza ends with the same one-line refrain e. The list shown above is an example of a form schema arranged as a hierarchical outline.
The bulleted entries in this list are the names of literary forms and subforms. Each form name is followed by the title of a literary work that is a representative sample of the form. Each indented form on the list is a subform subclass of the form under which it is indented.
Except at the top-most or bottom-most bullet of any sequence of forms and subforms, any particular form serves as a subform to the form above it and also as a form to the subform beneath it.