Gaea (Gaia) • Facts and Information About Primordial "Mother Earth"
Zeus, Jupiter, Jove, The Iliad, The Odyssey, The Argonautika, The Argonautica, Homer, The Titans are twelve children born to of Ouranos and Gaia. .. We are told very little about Zeus's relationship with the goddess of the moon, Selene. When Zeus grew up, he and the gods waged war against the TITANS for ten years. It was then that Gaia prophesied victory to Zeus if he would have the. Gaea was the great mother of all creation--the heavenly gods were First she rebelled against her husband Uranus, then her son Cronus and finally against Zeus.  TITYOS (Homer Odyssey , Virgil Aeneid , Nonnus Dionysiaca ) ) classes her together with the divinities presiding over marriage.
There are just so many. So this is not even close to a full list of Gods and Goddesses, to say nothing of all the demigods, mythical creatures, anthropomorphized-concepts, and other things that show up in Greek mythology.
Just some of the biggest, most important ones. In order of appearance: Primodial Deities Before there were Gods, there were these God-like anthropomorphized concepts. As far as I can tell, the first thing she did after having a kid was marry him, and then made more kids so they could fight. Picture a heavy-set Lucille Bluth with earth-powers.
Ouranos aka Uranus Primeval God of the Sky Ouranos was his own stepfather, and had some serious sibling rivalry with his children. Eventually a bunch of them got together and cut off his penis, after which he either died or disappeared, depending on who you ask. Aphrodite Olympian Goddess of Love Oh but that penis? There are a lot of stories about her, but I think my favorite is the one where she got so angry that she made a girl named Myrrha fall in love with her own father.
So, count with me now: Like, just imagine a modern American and a 14th century English lord trying to agree on what should be basic human rights. Ancient Greece is four times as far away, chronologically speaking. Mnemosyne Titan Goddess of Memory Mnemosyne invented language and words. Mnemosyne was the goddess of that.
She was also the mother of the Musesthe father being Zeus. I know some of these descriptions are short, but most of these guys barely appear anywhere aside from lists of titans.
Later, as people learned more about Geography, he wound up in charge of the Atlantic Ocean, with Poseidon getting the Mediterranean.
He also went to Tartarus, also until Zeus let him out. He also had crab claws on his head for some reason. He also went to Tartarus. Leda copulating with the swan as Eros looks on. It is commonly believed that Leda had three children by Zeus: Helen, Kastor and Polydeukes.
Later authors believed the Polydeukes might not have been a son of Zeus but since Kastor and Polydeukes were always referred to as the Dioskuri [sons of God], we can be more than reasonably sure that Polydeukes was Zeus's son. Tyndareus was a wise and religious man Tyndareus and Leda had two daughters Leda did what she could to make her family happy All three of her daughters disgraced their husbands and Leto finally took her own life to avoid their shame. The descendants of Zeus-Leda and Leda-Tyndareus.
Mortal Consorts of Zeus Niobe Niobe was the first mortal consort of Zeus and as we shall see, distantly related to Zeus's last mortal consort, Alkmene. Little has been retained about Niobe and some of what we know is contradictory.
An ancient writer named Akusilaos said that Pelasgus was the son of Zeus and Niobe, however Hesiod said that he was not. We do know that Niobe was the daughter of a man named Phoroneus and that she lived sixteen generations before Alkmene and was her ancestor. It appears that Zeus began to consort with mortal women with the ancestors of Alkmene and ceased with her. He was unwilling to have the better followed by the worse Alkmene's son Herakles was so noble that any children after him would have been a disappointment.
There is a bit confusion as to whether Nymphe and Zeus had a son named Saon because some writers say that Saon was the son of Hermes and a woman named Rhene. Regardless, Saon was born on the island of Samothrake and was the first man to organize the scattered inhabitants into cohesive groups that were then ruled by his five sons.
Saon named the island after himself and established a code of laws for the islanders. One of their daughters was named Pandora The Greeks are called Hellens because of Deukalion's son Hellen Sinope was a clever maiden who attracted the amorous attention of Zeus but in the end, his pursuit of Sinope was frustrated by his own cleverness. In order to get Sinope's affection, Zeus promised that he would give her anything she wanted.
She said that she desired to remain a virgin all of her life Zeus was honor bound to keep his promise. When Apollon sought Sinope as a lover, he too was forced to honor the promise made by Zeus.
Lakedaemon is credited with founding the district of Lakonia. He named the principal city of the kingdom after his wife Sparta and the nearby mountain was named after his mother, Taygete. Makedon is the more renowned of the two men because he established the country of Makedonia in northern Greece.
As the consort of Zeus, Thyone was the mother of Dionysos [a. Bacchus, god of wine]. When Thyone became pregnant with Zeus's child, Hera couldn't control her jealous rage and plotted a fiendish revenge on the unsuspecting young woman. In the guise of one of Thyone's friends, Hera suggested that Thyone demand that Zeus come to her in the same form he assumed when he was with his wife. Thyone innocently asked Zeus if he would show her his divine splendor.
Zeus agreed to Thyone's wishes and appeared to her clothed in thunder and lightning. Thyone was consumed by Zeus's glory. As Thyone's body began to burn, Hermes rescued her unborn son and Zeus lifted her out of the flames and granted her immortality Hermes gave the rescued babe to a woman named Makris, daughter of Aristaios, on the island of Euboia.
Greek Creation Story, Cronus and Rhea and Birth of Zeus
Makris soothed the child but when Hera perceived the trick, she drove Makris from her home. Zeus took the infant and sewed him into his thigh so that it might have his protection. In due time, the child was re-born on Mount Nysos and named Dionysos, which literally means god of Nysos, i. Thyone's son was destined to become one of the most revered Immortals on Mount Olympos.
The rites of Dionysos were incorporated into the rituals of all the Immortals and his impetuous mortal followers were welcomed for their free spirited abandon but they were also feared because of their unbridled lascivious behavior.
The following list is by no means complete but does include his most famous offspring. Aiakos Aiakos was the son Aegina and the husband of Endies Apollon became Zeus's instrument for delivering oracles Artemis became the virgin goddess of the hunt. Apollon and Artemis were both proficient with the bow and became respected and feared for their painless arrows. Children of Zeus Arkeisios Arkeisios was the son of Euryodia Children of Zeus Athene Athene is the goddess of wisdom Athene was born in a most unusual way Zeus swallowed Metis, and Athene was born inside his body Children of Zeus Dionysos Dionysos is also known as Bacchus, god of wine When Zeus mated with Thyone he revealed himself in his awesome splendor Her unborn child was saved from the flames and sewn into Zeus's thigh where he stayed until he was ready to be born He became the god of wine and his followers are known for their life affirming revelries.
Children of Zeus Eileithyia Eileithyia is the goddess of childbirth Hera has been known to use Eileithyia to punish Zeus for his philandering, like when she used Eileithyia to delay the birth of Apollon thus causing Leto a great deal of discomfort, or when she made sure that Eileithyia did not attend the birth of Herakles so that he would not inherit the throne of Argos.
Children of Zeus Hebe Hebe is the goddess of youth. She is the daughter of Hera, and the sister of Ares [god of war] and Eileithyia [goddess of childbirth]. After Herakles was granted immortality, Hebe became his wife Children of Zeus Helen Helen of Argos Helen was the daughter of Leda and the wife of King Menelaos of Sparta Children of Zeus Herakles Herakles was the son of Alkmene The descendants of Herakles ruled Greece and Asia Minor for five hundred years after his immortalization.
After his mortal life was over, Herakles was granted immortality and married his half-sister Hebe, goddess of youth. Children of Zeus Hermes Hermes is the son of Maia Zeus came to Maia secretly so that Hera would not interfere with his philandering.
Hermes was a bit of a rogue from the very beginning but Zeus considered him a delightful child. Hermes invented the lyre and as he grew older and more serious, he became the messenger of the Immortals and the guide for souls bound for the House of Hades. Just as their names imply, the Hours give harmony, justice and peace to all who honor and respect them As the daughters of Zeus, the Hours hold considerable influence over the way their father rewards and punishes his subject mortals.
Dardanos, became the legendary patriarch of the Trojans, but Zeus killed Iasion with a thunderbolt because of his impudence.
They are the sons of Leda and the brothers of Helen. Kastor and Polydeukes had several adventures that distinguished them as fearless fighters and honorable young men. They rescued Helen when she was kidnapped as a young girl After death, Kastor and Polydeukes were placed in the heavens as the constellation Gemini, i.
Children of Zeus Lakedaemon Lakedaemon was the son of Taygete Magnes had two sons, Diktys and Polydektes. Magnes's brother Makedon founded the district known as Makedonia.
5c. Gods, Goddesses, and Heroes
Zeus came to Mnemosyne on nine consecutive nights and the nine daughters were the result of those nine unions. All nine girls are of one mind Children of Zeus Pandeia is the daughter of Selene [Moon] Children of Zeus Persephone Persephone is the daughter of Demeter [goddess of the harvest].
Zeus arranged for Persephone to marry Hades [lord of the dead] even though Hades was Persephone's uncle Much to Demeter's chagrin, Persephone became the queen of the dead. Children of Zeus Perseus Perseus was the son of Danae King Akrisios of Argos, Danae's father, was told by an oracle that Danae would have a son who would kill him.
Zeus - The Father of Gods and Men
To thwart the oracle, Akrisios had Danae locked in a bronze vault so she could not be seduced or wed Zeus came to her as a shower of gold and Perseus was a result of Zeus's touch. Children of Zeus Sarpedon Sarpedon was the son of Laodameia After his death, Zeus had sympathy for Sarpedon and sent Apollon to cleanse his body so that Hypnos [Sleep] and Thanatos [Death] could return Sarpedon's body to his home in Lykia.
The only creatures on the primitive earth were non-sentient animals and monsters such as the Orb-Eyed Cyclopes and the three gigantic boys who came to be known as Briareos, Kottos and Gyes with fifty heads and fifty arms.
The next generation of Immortals was not as fearsome looking as their predecessors but were monsters none the less As a son of Titans, Zeus brought to fruition the creation of human beings All that can be deduced about the time frames of the first three ages of mortal men is the they existed sometime before 40, BCE. The "men" of the Golden Age were probably human-looking but it is easy to tell from their description that they were more like the Immortals than anything else.
As the name implies, the Golden Age was wonderful. The mortals of this age were created during the time of Kronos The Golden Age mortals lived like gods without sorrow, toil or grief The earth willingly and ceaselessly provided abundant fruit and flocks so that they could live in peace and at their ease.
When they died, it was as if sleep overcame them and they became Pure Spirits It was during the Silver Age that the idea of "female" mortals was experimented with but never fully implemented.
The Silver Age was less noble by far than the Golden Age because the Silver generation had neither the body nor the spirit of their predecessors.
The children of the Silver Age mortals stayed at their mother's side for a hundred years When they were fully grown and had reached their prime, their lives became very short and sorrowful. Their brief adult lives were marked by foolishness and punctuated by their wrongdoings towards one another. The most shameful aspect of the Silver Age mortals was that they refused to serve the Immortals or offer sacrifices at their altars While the Silver Age was still in progress, Zeus and his followers waged a bitter but successful war against the Titans.
Kronos and the other Titans were forcibly removed to Tartaros [The Pit]. Zeus was not pleased with the conduct of the Silver Age mortals and put them away. They are called Blessed Spirits of the Underworld and although they are considered to be second-order, they are still worthy of honor. These "men" were, like their predecessors, man-like but certainly not human beings as we would define the species.
There is an element of confusion as to the origins of the third mortal race. They are said to have sprung from the ash tree but that explanation seems to explain nothing.
Even when we consider the fact that the Immortals are not bound by natural law, a race of men engendered by ash trees seems difficult to imagine. Other interpretations of the origins of this race are: Regardless of semantics, the mortal men of the Age of Bronze were terrible and strong. They thrived on the violent and lamentable works of Ares.
They ate no bread and had hearts as hard as adamant. They used no iron The mortal men of the Age of Bronze were destroyed by their own penchant for violence and were seized by Thanatos [Death] and taken to the House of Hades. The last known man of the Age of Bronze was encountered and killed when Jason and the Argonauts were returning from their successful Quest for the Golden Fleece.
After Zeus had taken Europa to the island of Crete to raise their children, he placed a bronze man on the island to protect her He would pace around the island three times a day to ward off invaders and protect Europa and her descendants. When the Argonauts were trying to make landfall on Crete, Talos appeared on the shore and challenged them. Talos threw giant boulders at the Argo and scared the wits out of the battle-hardened Argonauts. Princess Medeia was the only one on the ship capable of defeating Talos because she had been a priestess of one of Zeus's favorites But we're getting ahead of ourselves, all that happened near the end of the Age of Heroes.
This was the age when Zeus finally created men and women like you and I. At first, there were only men but due to a conflict between Zeus and his cousin Prometheus, the first woman was created.
She was not created to be a comfort or compliment to the men of the earth Zeus seemed to be aloof to their misery but knowing all things, he allowed the suffering to continue until events could take their destined course.
The Rebel-God Prometheus played a critical role in the creation of the first woman and thus complete Zeus's designs for the Age of Heroes. As children of Titans, Zeus and Prometheus were of the same generation. Prometheus fought alongside Zeus against their Titan parents but he still did not agree with all that Zeus did. On one occasion, Prometheus tried to fool Zeus with a false sacrifice.
Prometheus disregarded the ancient custom of offering the choicest portions of the sacrificial animal to the Immortal being honored by the sacrifice. In a vain attempt to deceive Zeus, Prometheus wrapped fat and bone in such a way that they appeared to be a traditional sacrifice. Zeus recognized the deception and with infinite patience accepted the sacrifice.
He went on to say that from that time on, all sacrifices would be presented in the same manner. Prometheus misinterpreted Zeus's forbearance and thought that further disrespect would be treated with the same good natured indulgence.
Prometheus stole fire from Zeus and gave it to the men on the earth. It is difficult to know whether Prometheus was trying to test Zeus's authority or if he was simply trying to help the pitiable mortals of the earth Zeus instructed Hephaistos to chain Prometheus to the Caucasus Mountains where he was to remain for thirteen generations of mortal men.
Only one thing remained in the box — hope — which humans managed to hold on to. This myth explains the origins of human misfortune. At the same time, it teaches a moral lesson by warning of the dangers of curiosity. In addition to myths about gods, the ancient Greeks also told stories about heroes. One of the most famous Greek heroes was Hercules, the world's strongest man.
Hercules was the illegitimate son of a mortal woman and Zeus, who tricked the woman by disguising himself as the woman's husband. Hera, Zeus's wife, was angry about Zeus' affair and sought to punish Hercules. Hera tricked Hercules into believing that his entire family were dangerous beasts, which Hercules then proceeded to kill. When Hercules realized that he had killed his entire family, he agreed to perform 12 tasks to atone for his terrible actions. For one of the tasks, Hercules had to slay the nine-headed monster called the Hydra.
For another task, he had to clean the filth from Augean stable, which had not been attended to in 30 years. To do this, Hercules diverted the course of a river that washed away the mess. In the end, he completed the so-called 12 Labors of Hercules and made up for the murder of his family. He is also the god of thunder. Hera The wife of Zeus, Hera is the goddess of fertility. Poseidon The god of the sea.
Hades The god of the underworld. Hestia A little-known goddess, she is a sister of Zeus and goddess of the hearth. Chronos The leader of the Titans and father of the Olympians, Chronos ate all his children except for Zeus, who killed him. Demeter Goddess of the harvest and mother of Persephone.
Apollo God of the sun, music, and art, one of the most versatile gods. Artemis Goddess of the hunt, Moon, and childbirth. The sister of Apollo, she is also a very versatile Olympian. Aphrodite The goddess of love and the mother of Eros, known to the Romans as Cupid. Ares The god of War. Athena Sprang full-grown from Zeus's head. She is the Goddess of wisdom. The city of Athens is named for her. Haephestos The god of the forge.