'Chromosomes' poems - Hello Poetry
What is the relationship between DNA, genes and chromosomes? . code for amino acids which when assembled properly gives rise to songs called proteins. 85 quotes have been tagged as dna: Carl Sagan: 'The nitrogen in our DNA, the calcium in Only with the discovery of the double helix and the ensuing genetic . I am confused because I don't know if chromosome is made of DNA or DNA is made of chromosomes. Where does a gene come into this. Please make your.
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DNA, genes and chromosomes — University of Leicester
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DNA, genes and chromosomes
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Jul 1, you lose control of faith is not important. It suddenly disappeared "the fog was lost. Blue capillary is still available. Lost or damaged "area history, as power number. Genes are the basic unit of genetics. Human beings have 20, to 25, genes. These genes account for only about 3 per cent of our DNA. The function of the remaining 97 per cent is still not clear, although scientists think it may have something to do with controlling the genes.
Chromosomes If you took the DNA from all the cells in your body and lined it up, end to end, it would form a strand million miles long but very, very thin! To store this important material, DNA molecules are tightly packed around proteins called histones to make structures called chromosomes. The packaging of DNA into chromosomes Human beings have 23 pairs of chromosomes in every cell, which makes 46 chromosomes in total. A photograph of a person's chromosomes, arranged according to size, is called a karyotype.
The sex chromosomes determine whether you are a boy XY or a girl XX.
The other chromosomes are called autosomes. The karyotype of a male human being The largest chromosome, chromosome 1, contains about genes. The smallest chromosome, chromosome 21, contains about genes. But the highway proved to be little more than a long, rutted detour. The straightforward, neatly determining logical structure envisioned by Crick — a structure that became a feverish obsession during the Human Genome Project — has progressively transformed itself into a seething cauldron of endlessly complex dynamic processes extending throughout the organism.
The crucial problem for genetic determinism and the once-prevailing Central Dogma is that biochemical cause and effect within the cell, as in the organism as a whole, never proceeds in one direction alone.
To put it coarsely: The string of discoveries supporting this conclusion is not contested. We now know that one gene can produce many different proteins, depending on complex processes that are orchestrated not only by DNA, but also by proteins themselves.
Moreover, one protein is not necessarily one protein.
Dna Quotes (85 quotes)
For example, depending on the presence of so-called chaperon proteins, a given chain of amino acids the constituent elements of protein may fold in different ways. These various foldings in turn shape the overall structure and functioning of cell and organism. The supposedly linear structure of letters, words, and sentences into which DNA has been decoded simply does not articulate a clean, unambiguous, command-and-control authority sitting atop a hierarchical chain of command.
These processes yield hereditary changes that are not associated with structural changes in DNA at all. Rather, they arise from alterations in how the rest of the organism marks and employs its DNA. And beyond this, researchers have been exploring effects upon DNA from the larger environment.
In a dramatic reversal of traditional doctrine, investigations of bacteria show that gene mutations can arise from — can even be guided by — environmental conditions in a non-random way. In sum, genes are no more the self-determining cause of everything else in the organism than they are themselves the result of everything else. Finally, we have seen a startling demotion of the human genome in size relative to other organisms. The most recent and near-final estimate by the Human Genome Project puts humans in possession of 20, to 25, genes — this compared to at least 25, for a tiny, primitive, semi-transparent worm, Caenorhabditis elegans.
If genes constitute the one-way controlling logic or master program determining the potentials of the organism, then finding such unexpected gene counts is rather like discovering we could implement all the programs of the Microsoft Office software suite using only the minuscule amount of program logic required for a simple daily greeting program. Reviewing the history of misdirection surrounding the gene, Moss writes: Once upon a time it would have stood to reason that the complexity of an organism would be proportional to the number of its unique genetic units.
In the face of such protestations, recital of the history of misdirection begins to seem unfair. After all, scientists must be allowed to make mistakes, as long as they are willing to learn from them. But does the painfully repetitive history of genetics and AI suggest that they have in fact learned from their mistakes? The best way I know how to answer this question is to elucidate the central misdirection in the history under discussion.
The real significance of the overheated rhetoric of the Human Genome Project lies in the seemingly unstoppable appeal by geneticists to language and thought — that is, to book, word, letter, code, translation, transcription, message, signal, and all the rest. Or, to employ the most universal term today: This resort to a terminology so brazenly mental in origin appears to be a stunning reversal. Just a few decades ago we still lived within the long historical era during which it was unpardonable for the natural scientist to draw his explanatory terms from intelligent activity.
Crucially, the age of cybernetics and computation arrived. This brought with it, for many researchers, the promise of the mechanization of language and thought. Suddenly it became respectable to invoke human mentality in scientific explanation because everyone knew you were not really talking about mentality at all — certainly not about anything remotely resembling our actual mental experience.
You were invoking computational mechanisms. So the change was less a matter of assigning human intelligence to the mechanically conceived world than of reconceiving human intelligence itself as mechanical performance. But if we can look past this reductionism, what we find is that geneticists have glimpsed more truth than they realize, and the reason for their confusion is that, due to their mechanistic compulsions, they cannot bring themselves to accept their own inchoate insight.
If they have been driven to textual metaphors with such compelling, seemingly inescapable force, it is because these metaphors capture a truth of the matter. The creative processes within the organism are word-like processes.The relationship between nucleus, chromosome, dna, genes, and alleles
Something does speak through every part of the organism — and certainly through DNA along with all the rest. Geneticists are at least vaguely aware of this speaking — and of the unity of being it implies — and therefore they naturally resort to explanations that seem to invoke a being who speaks.
The problem is that their insistence upon textual mechanisms blinds them even to the most obvious aspects of language — aspects that prove crucial for understanding the organism. If I am speaking to you in a logically or grammatically proper fashion, then you can safely predict that my next sentence will respect the rules of logic and grammar. But this does not even come close to telling you what I will say.
Rather, they only tell us something about how we speak, not what we say or who we are as speaking beings. If geneticists would reckon fully with this one central truth, it would transform their discipline. They would no longer imagine they could read the significance of the genetic text merely by laying bare the rules of a molecular syntax. And they would quickly realize other characteristics of the textual language they incessantly appeal to — for example, that meaning flows from the larger context into the specific words, altering the significance of the words.
This is something you experience every time you find yourself able, while hearing a sentence, to select between words that sound alike but have different meanings.