Lessons from History: The Han-Xiongnu War and Modern China | Small Wars Journal
Peace and agreements between the Han dynasty and the Xiongnu were always The unique aspect of the China-steppe relationship is the constant threat the .. He moonlights at a D.C. non-profit as a market research analyst specializing in. The northern and southern frontiers of the Han dynasty have been conceived and repre- sented in the relevant .. The literature on Han-Xiongnu relations is vast. For a general .. Rather, it appears to have been a market center for local and. The period of the Han Dynasty ( BCE CE) in many ways can be said to Relations with the Hsiung-nu in the Reign of Emperor Wu-ti ( BCE). .. The Hsiung-nu were treated liberally; the market at the barrier was continued, and.
XIONGNU, YUEZHI AND OTHER ANCIENT HORSE PEOPLE OF CHINA, MONGOLIA AND CENTRAL ASIA
These new units including bronze knife moneygold, silver, tortoise, and cowry shell currencies often had a market price unequal to their weight and debased the value of coin currency.
Most of them bear characters, marks, stamps or impressions. They were not meant for circulation as currencyand were mainly used as rewards and gifts.
A wushu coin issued during the reign of Emperor Xuan of Han r. Merchants and peasant farmers paid property and poll taxes in coin cash and land taxes with a portion of their crop yield.
The government's efforts to circulate cash had empowered the very social class which it actively tried to suppress through heavy taxes, fines, confiscations, and price regulation schemes. Society and culture of the Han dynasty A female servant and male advisor dressed in silk robesceramic figurines from the Western Han Era After Shang Yang d.
This was a variation of the well-field system, where the government owned the land and assured every peasant an equal share to cultivate. Many of their government officials also became wealthy landowners.
This cost the government significant tax revenue. The government soon relied upon local administrations to conduct relief efforts. Cao Cao established government-managed agricultural colonies for landless commoners; in exchange for land and cheap equipment, the farmers paid a portion of their crop yield.
Li Kui and Chao Cuo both emphasize the extreme precariousness of Han agricultural life, a view summed up by Cho-yun Hsu, who writes that Han and pre-Han farmers had only "a relatively small margin left to meet other expenses": This comes to about Based on these tables, he derives a conversion between cash and hu: We can also estimate the amount of land needed to produce this amount of grain, thanks to Wolfram Eberhard who "estimates the average yield as being 1.
Other scholars give other numbers, however. Hsu claims that 50 mu about 5. However, the tax was reinstated in BC at a rate of one-thirtieth.
The lower taxable threshold age for minors increased to seven years during the reign of Emperor Yuan of Han r. To increase revenue, the government imposed heavier taxes on merchants, confiscated land from nobles, sold offices and titles, and established government monopolies over the minting of coins, iron manufacture and salt mining.
The overall property tax for merchants was raised in BC from coins for every 10, coins-worth of property owned to coins for every 2, coins-worth of property owned. After the government monopoly on liquor was abolished in 81 BC, a property tax of 2 coins for every 0. In addition to paying their monetary and crop taxes, all peasants of the Western Han period aged between fifteen and fifty-six were required to undertake mandatory conscription duties for one month of each year.
These duties were usually fulfilled by work on construction projects. In about the middle of the first century A. During the late first century A. A Chinese army crossed the Pamir Mountains, conquered territories as far west as the Caspian Sea, defeated the Yuezhi Kushan Empire, and even sent an emissary in search of the eastern provinces of Rome.
One of the Four Great Beauties of Ancient Chinese, she is said to have been a gorgeous lady and talented at painting, Chinese calligraphy, playing chess and music. She lived at a time when the Han Empire was having conflicts with Xiongnu, a nomadic people from Central Asia based in present-day Mongolia. Before her life took a dramatic turn, she was a neglected palace concubine, never visited by the emperor. Instead of giving him a princess, which was the custom, the emperor offered him five women from his harem, including Wang Zhaojun.
No princess or maids wanted to marry a Xiongnu leader and live a distant place so Wang Zhaojun stood out when she agreed to go to Xiongnu. When the Han emperor finally met her, he was astonished by her beauty, but it was too late for regrets.
She married Hu Hangye and had children by him. Peace ensued for over 60 years thanks to her marriage.
Along the way, the horse neighed, making Zhaojun extremely sad and unable to control her emotions. As she sat on the saddle, she began to play sorrowful melodies on a stringed instrument. A flock of geese flying southward heard the music, saw the beautiful young woman riding the horse, immediately forgot to flap their wings, and fell to the ground.
From then on, Zhaojun acquired the nickname "fells geese" or "drops birds. It resembles the natural green slope of a hill. She is still commemorated in Inner Mongolia people as a peace envoy, who contributed greatly to the friendship between the Han and Mongolian ethnic groups. A Zhaojun Museum has been set up near her tomb, in which her beautiful likeness is displayed in a white-marble sculpture and her wedding scene has become a bronze statue.
Xiongnu - New World Encyclopedia
In these artistic representations Wang Zhaojun always looks happy and resolved, in accordance with the widely accepted image of her as a brave woman who sacrificed for her country. Her sorrows as a tragic heroine deprived of true love may be buried along with her deep in the green tomb. For more on Wang Zhaojun see: The Yuezhi are first mentioned in Chinese sources at the beginning of the 2nd century B. When Lao Shang reigned c. The Yuezhi originally lived in the area between the Qilian or Heavenly Mountains and Dunhuang, but after they were defeated by the Xiongnu they moved far away to the west, beyond Dayuan, where they attacked and conquered the people of Daxia and set up the court of their king on the northern bank of the Gui River.
A small number of their people who were unable to make the journey west sought refuge among the Qiang barbarians in the Southern Mountains, where they are known as the Lesser Yuezhi. However some scholars have argued that the mountains referred to are the Tian Shan, placing the original homeland of the Yuezhi 1, kilometers further west in the northern part of modern Xinjiang. Endemic warfare between these two nomadic peoples reached a climax in the latter part of the third century and the early decades of the second century B.
The Yuezhi then migrated to the southwest where, early in the second century, they began to appear in the Oxus the modern Amu Darya Valley, to change the course of history in Bactria, Iran, and eventually India. Modu boasted in a letter B. A very small group of Yuezhi fled south to the territory of the Proto-Tibetan Qiang and came to be known to the Chinese as the "Small Yuezhi".
According to the Hanshu, they only numbered around families. The Sai undertook their own migration, which was to lead them as far as Kashmir, after travelling through a "Suspended Crossing" probably the Khunjerab Pass between present-day Xinjiang and northern Pakistan. The Sakas ultimately established an Indo-Scythian kingdom in northern India.
The Yuezhi crossed the neighbouring urban civilization of the Dayuan in Ferghana and settled on the northern bank of the Oxus, in the region of Transoxiana, in modern-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, just north of the Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian kingdom. The Greek city of Alexandria on the Oxus was apparently burnt to the ground by the Yuezhi around B.
Some time after that the Yuezhi moved south to Bactria, which was conquered by Alexander the Great in B. The Greek historian Strabo recorded this event, mistaking the Yuezhi for a Scythian tribe. All, or the greatest part of them, are nomads. The best known tribes are those who deprived the Greeks of Bactriana, the Asii, Pasiani, Tochari, and Sacarauli, who came from the country on the other side of the Jaxartes, opposite the Sacae and Sogdiani. The eastern part of Bactria was occupied by Pashtun people.
As they settled in Bactria from around B. Their descendants, the Kushans, converted to Buddhism in the 1st century B. When Kushan was its peak in first three centuries after Christ, it ranked with Rome, China and Parthia as one of the great powers of the world. Commercial relations with China also flourished, as many Chinese missions were sent throughout the 1st century B. In the course of one year anywhere from five to six to over ten parties would be sent out. Their land is at a high altitude; the climate is dry; the region is remote.
The king of the state calls himself "son of heaven". There are so many riding horses in that country that the number often reaches several hundred thousand. City layouts and palaces are quite similar to those of Daqin the Roman empire.
The skin of the people there is reddish white. People are skilful at horse archery. Local products, rarities, treasures, clothing, and upholstery are very good, and even India cannot compare with it. The Xianbei were the northern branch of the Donghu or Tung Hu, the Eastern Hua proto-Tunguz group mentioned in Chinese histories as existing as early as the fourth century B.
The language of the Donghu, like that of the Xiongnu, is unknown to modern scholars. The Donghu were among the first peoples conquered by the Xiongnu. Once the Xiongnu state weakened, however, the Donghu rebelled.
Xiongnu vs. Han China
By the first century, two major subdivisions of the Donghu had developed: The Xianbei, who by the second century A. The Wuhuan also were prominent in the second century, but they disappeared thereafter; possibly they were absorbed in the Xianbei western expansion. The Xianbei and the Wuhuan used mounted archers in warfare, and they had only temporary war leaders instead of hereditary chiefs. Agriculture, rather than full-scale nomadism, was the basis of their economy.
In the sixth century A.