Korean War :: Analysis
Furthermore, Stalin's administration consolidated the notion of the Soviet Union Referred to as the Eternal President, Kim Il-sung (ruling from. He succeeded as a dictator after his father's death, Kim Il Sung. Also, he kept the restrained relationship with South Korea. After Lenin's death, Stalin was a succeeded leader of USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. known that the relationship in the six years after the Cuban . the relationship between the Soviet Union and North sation between Stalin and Kim Il Sung in. Moscow American editor to be announced); Lenin's “Secret”.
Kim was appointed commander of the 2nd operational region for the 1st Army, but by the end of he was the only 1st Army leader still alive. Pursued by Japanese troops, Kim and what remained of his army escaped by crossing the Amur River into the Soviet Union.
Stalin had instructed Lavrentiy Beria to recommend a Communist leader for the Soviet-occupied territories and Beria met Kim several times before recommending him to Stalin. For one, his Korean was marginal at best; he had only had eight years of formal education, all of it in Chinese. He needed considerable coaching to read a speech which the MVD prepared for him at a Communist Party congress three days after he arrived. Kim also formed an air force, equipped at first with Soviet-built propeller-driven fighters and attack aircraft.
Voters were presented with a single list from the Communist-dominated Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland. On 15 Augustthe south had declared statehood as the Republic of Korea. On 12 October, the Soviet Union recognized Kim's government as the sovereign government of the entire peninsula, including the south.
The first of many statues of him appeared, and he began calling himself "Great Leader". Evidence suggests that Soviet intelligence, through its espionage sources in the US government and British SIShad obtained information on the limitations of US atomic bomb stockpiles as well as defense program cuts, leading Stalin to conclude that the Truman administration would not intervene in Korea.
At the outset of the war in June and July, North Korean forces captured Seoul and occupied most of the South, save for a small section of territory in the southeast region of the South that was called the Pusan Perimeter. There were nevertheless tensions between Kim and the Chinese government.
Kim had been warned of the likelihood of an amphibious landing at Incheon, which was ignored.
There was also a sense that the North Koreans had paid little in war compared to the Chinese who had fought for their country for decades against foes with better technology.
In March, UN forces began a new offensive, retaking Seoul and advanced north once again halting at a point just north of the 38th Parallel. After a series of offensives and counter-offensives by both sides, followed by a grueling period of largely static trench warfare that lasted from the summer of to Julythe front was stabilized along what eventually became the permanent " Armistice Line " of 27 July Kim also resented the Chinese taking over the majority of the fighting in his country, with Chinese forces stationed at the center of the front line, and the Korean People's Army being mostly restricted to the coastal flanks of the front.
Stalin and Kim Jung Il by Sophia Choi on Prezi
However, the three-year war left North Korea devastated, and Kim immediately embarked on a large reconstruction effort. He launched a five-year national economic plan to establish a command economywith all industry owned by the state and all agriculture collectivised.
The economy was focused on heavy industry and arms production. In the ensuing years, Kim established himself as an independent leader of international communism. Inhe joined Mao in the " anti-revisionist " camp, which did not accept Nikita Khrushchev 's program of de-Stalinizationyet he did not become a Maoist himself.
At the same time, he consolidated his power over the Korean communist movement.
Rival leaders were eliminated. Pak Hon-yongleader of the Korean Communist Partywas purged and executed in Choe Chang-ik appears to have been purged as well. This was little noticed at the time until state media started talking about it in Despite his opposition to de-Stalinization, Kim never officially severed relations with the Soviet Union.How the Kim Dynasty Took Over North Korea - History
He did not take part in the Sino-Soviet Split. At the same time, Kim was increasingly alienated by Mao's unstable style of leadership, especially during the Cultural Revolution in the late s. Kim in turn was denounced by Mao's Red Guards. In Korea, too, we can say that the leadership of the Korean Workers' Party is wallowing in the same waters" and claimed that Kim Il Sung was begging for aid from other countries, especially among the Eastern Bloc and non-aligned countries like Yugoslavia.
As a result, relations between North Korea and Albania would remain cold and tense right up until Hoxha's death in Although a resolute anti-communist, Zaire 's Mobutu Sese Seko was also heavily influenced by Kim's style of rule.
North Koreans were taught that Kim was the "Sun of the Nation" and could do no wrong. Kim developed the policy and ideology of Juche in opposition to the idea of North Korea as a satellite state of China or the Soviet Union. In the s, Kim became impressed with the efforts of North Vietnamese Leader Ho Chi Minh to reunify Vietnam through guerilla warfare and thought something similar might be possible in Korea.
The capture of the crew of the spy ship USS Pueblo was a part of this campaign. Kim gave up the premiership and was elected president. On 14 AprilNorth Korea discontinued most formal use of its traditional units and adopted the metric system.
The Kim family was supported by the armydue to Kim Il-sung's revolutionary record and the support of the veteran defense minister, O Chin-u. Ina rumor spread that Kim had been assassinated, making the concern for Jong-il's ability to succeed his father actual. Kim dispelled the rumors, however, by making a series of public appearances.
It has been argued, however, that the incident helped establish the order of succession—the first patrifilial in a Communist state—which eventually would occur upon Kim Il-Sung's death in The practical effect of Juche was to cut the country off from virtually all foreign trade in order to make it entirely self-reliant.
The economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping in China from onward meant that trade with the moribund economy of North Korea held decreasing interest for China. The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Unionfrom —, completed North Korea's virtual isolation. For those who wish to forget the lesson of history so easily and so quickly, Algeria, Viet Nam, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola — and closer to us — Zimbabwe, Namibia, and Azania are excellent examples which make them deeply reflect on.
What we want is not the perfection of political independence alone. The evil forces craftily manipulate the economic levers in order to perpetuate their supremacy and reduce us to vassals and eternal mendicants. It is interchangeable with the juche [ sic ] idea". The idea of Juche, which constitutes the quintessence of Kimilsungism, is an idea newly discovered in the history of mankind". On the basis of Juche ideathe leader gave a profound explanation of the theories, strategies and tactics of national liberationclass emancipation and human liberations in our era.
Thus, it can be said that the revolutionary theory of Kimilsungism is a perfect revolutionary theory of Communism in the era of Juche. Guided by Kimilsungism-Kimjongilism, we should conduct Party building and Party activities, so as to sustain the revolutionary character of our Party and advance the revolution and construction in line with the ideas and intentions of the President and the General. In our socialist society, the leader, the Party, and the masses throw in their lot with one another, forming a single socio-political organism.
The consolidation of blood relations between the leader, the Party and the masses is guaranteed by the single ideology and united leadership. Instead of a strict social hierarchy, North Korea had in theory divided the union into three classes, namely peasant, worker and samuwon intellectuals and professionalswhere each was just as important as the other. The samuwon class consisted of clerks, small traders, bureaucrats, professors and writers.
This was a unique class that was created to increase education and literacy of North Korea's population. Normally, Communist nations would value only the farmers or laborers, thus in the Soviet Union the intelligentsia was not defined as an independent class of its own, but rather as a "social stratum" that recruited itself from members of almost all classes: However, a "peasant intelligentsia" was never mentioned.