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The scene in the movie Schindler's List with Oskar Schindler thinking of names or demanding Itzhak Stern come up with more names simply did. He's also the closest thing Oskar has to a real friend, even though they start out in a decidedly less-than-friendly relationship. Stern works for the Judenrat: the. Finally, after a half-dozen sessions with Itzhak Stern, who was his Consequently, Herbert Steinhouse's account Of Oskar Schindler has gone.
When Schindler requested that those Jews who continued to work in his factory be moved into their own sub-camp near the plant "to save time in getting to the job," Goeth complied.
From then on, Schindler found that be could have food and medicine smuggled into the barracks with little danger. The guards, of course, were bribed, and Goeth never was to discover the true motives in Schindler's request. Schindler began to take bigger risks.
Interceding for Jews who were denounced for one "crime" or another was a dangerous habit in fascist eyes, but Schindler now started to do this almost regularly. These things can always be settled later. One August morning inSchindler played host to two surprise visitors who had been sent to him by the underground organization that the American Jewish welfare agency, the Joint Distribution Committee, then operated in occupied Europe.
Satisfied that the men indeed had been sent by Dr. Rudolph Kastner, head of the secret JDC apparatus, who was at the time leading a shadowy existence in Budapest with a sizable price on his head, Schindler called for Stern. You can rely on them.For whom did Schindler make a scene in the train station
Sit down and write. Turning angrily to Schindler, he asked, "Schindler, tell me frankly, isn't this a provocation? It is most suspicious. Stern had little choice. He wrote everything he could think of, mentioned names of those living and those dead, and penned the long letter that, years later, he discovered had been circulated widely and helped to settle uncertainties in the hearts of the prisoners' relatives scattered around the world outside Europe.
And when the underground subsequently brought him answering letters from America and Palestine, any doubts he still might have had of the integrity or judgment of Oskar Schindler vanished. Life in the Schindler factory went on. Some of the less hardy men and women died, but the majority continued doggedly at their machines, turning out enamelware for the German army. Schindler and his "inner-office" circle had become taut and apprehensive, wondering just how long they could continue their game of deception.
Schindler himself still entertained the local officers but, with the change of tide that followed Stalingrad and the invasion of Italy, tempers were often out of control.
Itzhak Stern - Wikipedia
A stroke of a pen could send the Jewish workers to Auschwitz and Schindler along with them. The group moved cautiously, increased the bribes to the guards at the camp and the factory, and, with Schindler's smuggled food and medicines, fought for survival. The year became Daily, life ended for thousands of Polish Jews. But the Schindlerjuden, to their own surprise, found themselves still alive. By the spring ofthe German retreat on the Eastern Front was on in earnest.
Plaszow and all its sub-camps were ordered emptied.
Schindler and his workers had no illusions about what a move to another concentration camp implied. The time had come for Oskar Schindler to play his trump card, a daring gamble that he had devised beforehand. He went to work on all his drinking companions, on his connections in military and industrial circles in Cracow and in Warsaw.
He bribed, cajoled, pleaded, working desperately against time and fighting what everyone assured him was a lost cause. He got on a train and saw people in Berlin. And he persisted until someone, somewhere in the hierarchy, perhaps impatient to end the seemingly trifling business, finally gave him the authorization to move a force of men and women from the Plaszow camp into a factory at Brnenec in his native Sudetenland.
Most of the other 25, men, women, and children at Plaszow were sent to Auschwitz, there to find the same end that several million other Jews had already discovered. But out of the vast calamity, and through the stubborn efforts of one man, a thousand Jews were saved temporarily.
One thousand half-starved, sick, and almost broken human beings had had a death sentence commuted by a miraculous reprieve. The move from the Polish factory to the new quarters in Czechoslovakia, it turned out, was not uneventful.
One lot of a hundred did go out directly in July,and arrived at Brnenec safely. Others, however, found their train diverted without warning to the concentration camp of Gross-Rosen, where many were beaten and tortured and where all were forced to stand in even files in the great courtyard, doing absolutely nothing but putting on and taking off their caps in unison all day long. At length Schindler once more proved successful at pulling strings. By early November all of the Schindlerjuden were again united in their new camp.
And until liberation in the spring of they continued to outwit the Nazis at the dangerous game of remaining alive. Ostensibly the new factory was producing parts for V2 bombs, but, actually, the output during those ten months between July and May was absolutely nil.
Jews escaping from the transports then evacuating Auschwitz and the other easternmost camps ahead of the oncoming Russians found haven with no questions asked.
Schindler even brazenly requested the Gestapo to send him all intercepted Jewish fugitives: The Schindlerjuden by now depended on him completely and were fearful in his absence.
His compassion and sacrifice were unstinting. He spent every bit of money still left in his possession, and traded his wife's jewellery as well, for food, clothing, and medicine, and for schnapps with which to bribe the many SS investigators. He furnished a secret hospital with stolen and black-market medical equipment, fought epidemics, and once made a mile trip himself carrying two enormous flasks filled with Polish vodka and bringing them back full of desperately needed medicine.
His wife, Emilie, cooked and cared for the sick and earned her own reputation and praise. In the factory some of the men began turning out false rubber stamps, military travel documents, and the special official papers needed to protect the delivery of food bought illicitly. Nazi uniforms and guns were collected and hidden, along with ammunition and hand grenades, as all eventualities were prepared for. The risks mounted and the tension grew. Schindler, however, seems to have maintained an equilibrium throughout this period that was virtually unshakable.
I had to keep them full of optimism. The first was when a group of workers, lost for some means of expressing their pent-up gratitude, foolishly told him that they had heard the illegal radio broadcast a promise to name a street in postwar Palestine "Oskar Schindler Strasse. When the hoax was finally admitted he could no longer laugh. The other occurred during a visit from the local SS commandant. As was customary, the SS officer sat around Schindler's office drinking glass after glass of vodka and getting drunk rapidly.
When he lurched perilously near an iron staircase leading to the basement, Schindler, suddenly yielding to temptation, made one of his rare unpremeditated acts. A slight push, a howl, and a dull thud from the bottom. But the man was not dead. Climbing back into the room with blood pouring from his scalp, he bellowed that Schindler had shot him. Cursing with rage, he flung over his shoulder as he ran out: Don't think you fool us.
You belong in a concentration camp yourself, along with all your Jews! Near the factory he had been given a beautifully furnished villa that overlooked the length of the valley where the small Czech village lay.
But since the workers always dreaded the SS visits that might come late at night and spell their end, Oskar and Emilie Schindler never spent a single night at the villa, sleeping instead in a small room in the factory itself When the Jewish workers died they were secretly buried with full rites despite Nazi rulings that their corpses be burned.
Religious holidays were observed clandestinely and celebrated with extra rations of black-market food. Perhaps the most absorbing of all the legends that Schindlerjuden on four continents repeat is one that graphically illustrates Schindler's self-adopted role of protector and saviour in the midst of general and amoral indifference. Just about the time the Nazi empire was crashing down, a phone call from the railway station late one evening asked Schindler whether he cared to accept delivery of two railway cars fall of near-frozen Jews.
The cars had been frozen shut at a temperature of 5 F and contained almost a hundred sick men who had been locked inside for ten days, ever since the train had been sent off from Auschwitz ten days earlier with orders to deliver the human cargo to some willing factory.
But, when informed of the condition of the prisoners, no factory manager would hear of receiving them. Schindler, sickened by the news, ordered the train sent to his factory siding at once. The train was awesome to behold. Ice had formed on the locks and the cars had to be opened with axes and acetylene torches. Inside, the miserable relics of human beings were stretched out, frozen stiff. Each had to be carried out like a carcass of frozen beef.
Oskar Schindler Biography
Thirteen were unmistakably dead, but the others still breathed. The list In earlyhowever, Plaszow's designation was changed from that of a labor camp to a concentration camp. This meant that its prisoners were suddenly marked for transport to death camps such as Auschwitz. Then came word in the summer that the main camp was to be closed as well as Schindler's factory.
Schindler approached Goeth about moving his factory and his workers to Czechoslovakia so that they might continue to supply the Third Reich Hitler's army with vital war supplies. After another bribe, the SS officer agreed to throw his support behind the plan and told Schindler to draw up a list of those people he wanted to take with him.
Schindler was now faced with the task of choosing those he wanted to save—literally a matter of life and death. Schindler came up with a list containing some eleven hundred names, including all the employees of Emalia Camp and a number of others as well.
During the fall ofSchindler made the necessary arrangements and paid the necessary bribes to begin the process of moving his factory to the town of Brunnlitz, Czechoslovakia. The liquidation of the Plaszow camp began that October. Shortly after around eight hundred men were shipped out in boxcars bound for Brunnlitz. Three hundred women and children who were supposed to join them there were mistakenly routed to Auschwitz instead.
Schindler immediately rescued these women and children, and they were sent on to Brunnlitz. Over the next seven months, Schindler's factory never produced a single useful shell the outer casings for bullets. He called it "start-up difficulties" when, in reality, he had purposefully weakened the manufacturing process to make sure that the shells failed quality-control tests.
End of the war Finally, on May 8,the war came to an end after Germany surrendered. Schindler gathered all of his workers together on the factory floor to pass along the good news. He then asked them not to seek revenge for what had been done to them and called for a moment of silence in memory of those who had died. He also thanked the members of the SS who were present and encouraged them to go home peacefully and without further bloodshed.
Fearing capture, Schindler, along with his wife, fled west to avoid Russian troops advancing from the east. He preferred to take his chances with the approaching U.
A couple of days later, the twelve hundred or so Schindlerjuden "Shindler's Jews" were freed by a lone Russian officer who rode up to the factory on horseback. After World War II Schindler's postwar life was similar to that before the war, which was marked by a string of failed business ventures, overspending, plenty of drinking, and love affairs.
In Schindler moved to Argentina and purchased a farm. Byhowever, Schindler had gone bankrupt and was relying on the charity of the Jewish organization B'nai B'rith to survive. KL Plaszow This was the way of escape of Dr. Julian Aleksandrowicz, with his wife and small son. There were two main escapes into the sewers, one at the junction of Jozefinska and Krakusa streets, and the other at the crossing of Jozefinska and Wegierska Street.
Many escaped this way until the SS detected this, waited at the outlets, and shot the escapees. Now it was the turn of Ghetto B. People in the Ghetto were running in all directions, there was absolute panic. People, were shouting, crying, loaded down with possessions, looking for sanctuary, where there was none.
Then there was utter silence and all those in the area froze, their eyes turned towards Targowa Street. Standing, dressed in a black leather coat, holding a riding crop in one hand and a short automatic rifle in the other, accompanied by two large calls called Rolph and Ralph stood Amon Goeth, surrounded by his personal bodyguard.
Other dignitaries arrived and selected their favourites, their informants and selected personnel who were not to be subjected to the liquidation that was to follow.
The Germans had killed within a few hours, approximately 1, persons and a further 3, were transported to Auschwitz. The ghetto enclosure was then taken down and the area reverted to dwellings for the Polish inhabitants of Podgorze.
Oskar Schindler Biography - life, family, childhood, children, name, story, death, wife, school
The final act in the destruction of the Krakow Ghetto was on the 14 and 15 December In the early evening, truckloads of helmeted and armed SS, under the direct command of Amon Goeth, surrounded the Ordnungsdienst building. All members of the Ordnungsdienst, with their families were loaded onto trucks, driven away and executed in Plaszow. The newly erected barracks at Emalia were a great success. The punishments of 25 lashes disappeared, the persistent parading, and the fear of the evil-eye of Goeth descending upon them, were all now in the past.
Whenever the SS visited the barracks, Schindler forewarned them, allowing for the hasty disappearance of unauthorised artefacts. Even when Goeth made an impromptu visit to see Schindler, the shutters of the barrack windows were closed. Within his own sub-camp, it was easier for him to perform acts of kindness for his workers. He took to visiting the factory daily where he spoke to small groups of workers, reassuring them and giving them hope.
Medicine and clothing were also acquired in this way. A considerable expense was incurred by Schindler in paying enormous bribes to influential Party members, SS leaders, Police and camp Commandants and other parasites in order to continue his activities. Only in this way could he afford to bribe those people that he needed for his particular purposes. The Emalia barracks were becoming overcrowded, but he strove to keep the families together. There were often conflicts of loyalty among the workers, their overwhelming desire was to keep their kin-folk safe.
Schindler employed disabled workers as capable workers, the old and infirm as machine operators and the children as metal polishers. He falsified factory records, which was reckless in the extreme.
Old people were listed as being 20 years younger, children were listed as adults. Throughout the duration of Emalia, Schindler was paying 5 Zloty per day, per worker, to the coffers of the SS and police.
There were now about a thousand Jews working in Emalia, three hundred were to remain for the dismantling of the plant, the remainder would be sent to KL Plaszow, for relocation.
On the 17 August Emalia awoke to a mighty explosion, barracks were on fire and secondary explosions were erupting all over the area. An Allied forces Liberator bomber had crashed on the Emalia sub-camp.
The navigator of this aircraft was an Australian Squadron Leader Liversidge, who was killed. Another Australian Flight Lieutenant A. Hammet although wounded, parachuted to safety and was hidden by a partisan group until Januarywhen Russian troops occupied the area.
A commemorative plaque to the memory of these officers is affixed to the wall at the Emalia factory at 4 Lipowa Street, Krakow. Schindler was now looking for new territories where he could transfer his machinery. He was passed from department to department but eventually he acquired the authority to transfer the plant at much personal cost.
He thought long and hard of his circumstances, his wife and the people that looked to him as their only chance, their last chance. This was not a game, this was not now a money-making venture, where he could see the profits mounting up. This was reality, the reality of life and death, not only to those who were with him, but those who languished in Plaszow.
The new factory, back in the Sudetenland, was between his home town of Switavy and the industrial city of Brno, but to be more precise it rested between the villages of Brezova — Brnenec and Moravska Chrastova. The factory nestled in a valley, surrounded by mountains and would be difficult to bomb from the air. Herr Hoffmann, a former Trustee of this mill and well decorated with Party protectionism, made the move very difficult for Schindler.
Schindler estimated that these gifts alone cost him personallyReichsmarks, the total cost of the move to Brunnlitz cost approximatelyReichsmarks.
Rumours were spreading in KL Plaszow that Schindler had acquired a new factory in Moravia and was selecting workers to go with him. Schindler had conferred with Bankier, Madritsch and Titsch over the formulation of the personnel to go on the list. Schindler poses with Jews he rescued circa First to be nominated were the Jews who were engaged in the decommissioning of the Emalia factory.
In the event Madritsch was only able to supply 60 names, 40 men and 20 women. When Schindler inspected the Madritsch list he noticed that between the last name on the list, and the signature of authorisation there was a large space.
Schindler entered another 30 names in this space, thus 30 more workers had won the lottery of life, an action that caused Madritsch some angst. During his absence from the camp, officers from Bureau V RSMO, descended on the camp, and began a full scale investigation and audit. Just prior to going on leave, Goeth had been covering up his tracks when he had the well known informers and collaborators, the Chilowicz and Finkelstein families all shot. There were no shortage of informers among the other SS officers of the camp.
To the relief of everyone Goeth was not to return to the camp. He had been arrested by the SS investigators in his apartment in Vienna and taken to the SS prison in Breslau, where he remained in custody.
On 15 October at 5am on the Appellplatz the list of workers going to Brunnlitz was read out, the men and boys were transferred to Brunnlitz, via the KL Gross Rosen.
Schindlers factory Brnenec post war After some hours, the transport arrived at Auschwitz- Birkenau, on 22 October where the transports were processed in the usual way. On this transport from KL Plaszow there were 2, women, including the destined for Brunnlitz. After delousing, cold showers and having their hair shaved the Schindler group were kept in the Sauna overnight. There was added depression among the men — all the children at Brunnlitz were to be transferred with their fathers to Auschwitz.
The delay in the arrival of the women was now of great concern. Stern went to Schindler and begged him to do something. Too late to stop the transport of the boys to Auschwitz, he used all his influence to have the women released. Again there were phone calls to friends in high places.