History of the Eastern Orthodox Church under the Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia
The quick accommodation between Venice and the Ottoman Empire after settlements in the principal cities of the expanding Ottoman realm but also eastern Mediterranean, the Ottoman and Venetian Empires, relations were always tangled. For the Venetians, both mainland Italian rivals, spasmodically stirred up by. The work ends with the statement that in the Ottoman army began to oppress Dalmatian towns and villages were extensively plundered, burned and and another seven in Italian translation, all of them dated between the beginning of. In AD , the city of Constantinople, the capital and last stronghold of the Byzantine Empire, Islam not only recognized Jesus as a great prophet, but tolerated Christians to a limited degree. Because Islamic . In government troops killed, in the towns of Adana alone, over 20, Christian Armenians. When World.
Life became ruralized and militarized. Heavy burdens of taxation were placed on the Christian population, and many Greeks were reduced to subsistence farming whereas during prior eras the region had been heavily developed and urbanized.
The exception to this rule was in Constantinople and the Venetian -held Ionian islandswhere many Greeks lived in prosperity. Ottoman landholdings, previously fiefs held directly from the Sultan, became hereditary estates chiflikswhich could be sold or bequeathed to heirs.
The new class of Ottoman landlords reduced the hitherto free Greek farmers to serfdom, leading to depopulation of the plains, and to the flight of many people to the mountains, in order to escape poverty. The Patriarch was accountable to the Sultan for the good behavior of the Orthodox population, and in exchange he was given wide powers over the Orthodox communities, including the non-Greek Slavic peoples.
The Patriarch controlled the courts and the schools, as well as the Church, throughout the Greek communities of the empire.
This made Orthodox priests, together with the local magnates, called Prokritoi or Dimogerontes, the effective rulers of Greek towns and cities. Some Greek towns, such as Athens and Rhodesretained municipal self-government, while others were put under Ottoman governors. Several areas, such as the Mani Peninsula in the Peloponnese, and parts of Crete Sfakia and Epirusremained virtually independent. During the frequent Ottoman—Venetian Warsthe Greeks sided with the Venetians against the Ottomans, with a few exceptions.
The emblem of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. As a rule, the Ottomans did not require the Greeks to become Muslimsalthough many did so on a superficial level in order to avert the socioeconomic hardships of Ottoman rule  or because of the alleged corruption of the Greek clergy. Under the millet logic, Greek Muslimsdespite often retaining elements of their Greek culture and language, were classified simply as "Muslim", although most Greek Orthodox Christians deemed them to have "turned-Turk" and therefore saw them as traitors to their original ethno-religious communities.
Crypto-Christians officially ran the risk of being killed if they were caught practicing a non-Muslim religion once they converted to Islam.
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Bayezid Iaccording to a Byzantine historian, freely admitted Christians into his society while trying to grow his empire, in the early Ottoman period. Later, although the Turkish ruler attempted to pacify the local population with a restoration of peacetime rule of law, the Christian population also became subject to special taxes and the tribute of Christian children to the Ottoman state to feed the ranks of the Janissary corps.
Selim ordered the confiscation of all Christian churches, and while this order was later rescinded, Christians were heavily persecuted during his era. Failure to pay the jizya could result in the pledge of protection of the Christian's life and property becoming void, facing the alternatives of conversion; enslavement or death. Most Greeks did not have to serve in the Sultan's army, but the young boys that were taken away and converted to Islam were made to serve in the Ottoman military.
In addition, girls were taken in order to serve as odalisques in harems. There was much resistance to this. For example, Greek folklore tells of mothers crippling their sons to avoid their abduction. Nevertheless, entrance into the corps accompanied by conversion to Islam offered Greek boys the opportunity to advance as high as governor or even Grand Vizier.
Opposition of the Greek populace to taxing or paidomazoma resulted in grave consequences.
For example, in an Ottoman official was sent from Naoussa in Macedonia to search and conscript new Janissaries and was killed by Greek rebels who resisted the burden of the devshirmeh. The rebels were subsequently beheaded and their severed heads were displayed in the city of Thessaloniki. In other cases, the families bribed the officers to ensure that their children got a better life as a government officer. Greek folk music and Rebetiko After the 16th century, many Greek folk songs dimotika were produced and inspired from the way of life of the Greek people, brigands and the armed conflicts during the centuries of Ottoman rule.
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The new class of Ottoman landlords reduced the hitherto free Greek peasants to serfdomleading to further poverty and depopulation in the plains. The Phanariotesa class of wealthy Greeks who lived in the Phanar district of Constantinople, became increasingly powerful.
Their travels to Western Europe as merchants or diplomats brought them into contact with advanced ideas of liberalism and nationalismand it was among the Phanariotes that the modern Greek nationalist movement was born. Anatolia before the Ottomans[ edit ] A rough map of Anatolian beyliks in c. Mongol pressure pushed nomadic Turkish tribes to migrate westward, into the now poorly-defended Byzantine territory.
From the s onward Anatolia increasingly began to slip from Byzantine control, as Turkish Anatolian beyliks were established both in formerly Byzantine lands and in the territory of the fragmenting Seljuk Sultanate.
Western Anatolia was then a hotbed of raiding activity, with warriors switching allegiance at will to whichever chief seemed most able to provide them with opportunities for plunder and glory. According to later Ottoman tradition, he was descended from a Turkic tribe which migrated out of Central Asia in the wake of the Mongol Conquests.
Thus it was inclusive of all who wished to join, including people of Byzantine origin. Gaza Thesis In the Austrian historian Paul Wittek published an influential work entitled The Rise of the Ottoman Empire, in which he put forth the argument that the early Ottoman state was constructed upon an ideology of Islamic holy war against non-Muslims. Such a war was known as gaza, and a warrior fighting in it was called a gazi. Beginning in the s, historians increasingly began to criticize Wittek's thesis.
It was only later, in the fifteenth century, that Ottoman writers retroactively began to portray the early Ottomans as zealous Islamic warriors, in order to provide a noble origin for their dynasty which had by then constructed an intercontinental Islamic empire. Urban centers and settled regions were devastated, while nomadic groups suffered less of an impact. The first Ottoman incursions into the Balkans began shortly thereafter. Depopulation resulting from the plague was thus almost certainly a major factor in the success of early Ottoman expansion into the Balkans, and contributed to the weakening of the Byzantine Empire and the depopulation of Constantinople.
As Ottoman territory expanded its rulers were faced with the challenge of administering an ever-larger population. Early on the Ottomans adopted the Seljuks of Rum as models, and by were able to produce Persian-language bureaucratic documents in the Seljuk style.
Much of the state's centralization was carried out in opposition to these frontier warriors, who resented Ottoman efforts to control them. Ultimately, the Ottomans were successfully able to harness the military power of the gazis in order to conquer an empire, while increasingly subordinating those warriors to their will.
This reflected both an ideological concern for the well-being of their subjects, and also a pragmatic need to earn the loyalty of newly conquered populations. As the Ottoman state centralized during the fifteenth century this relatively light tax burden was increased, prompting criticism from writers who saw such centralization in a negative light.
History of the Eastern Orthodox Church under the Ottoman Empire
While other Turkic groups frequently divided their realms between the sons of a deceased ruler, the Ottomans consistently kept the empire united under a single heir. Such measures frustrated the gazis which the Ottomans relied upon to sustain their military conquests, and created lasting tensions within the state.
Such power of appointment indicated that the Ottoman rulers were no longer merely primus inter pares but sat at the top of a hierarchy of leadership. As a way of openly declaring this new status, Murad became the first Ottoman ruler to adopt the title of sultan.