Symbiosis in Termites - biology4friends
The partnership between termites and flagellate protists, together with prokaryotes, has been very . As the human population increases, production, trade and use of wooden . symbiotic fauna, and the relationships between. In a symbiotic relationship, 2 organisms form a partnership that can be (but from generation to generation, e.g., termites and their digestive tract protozoa. Examples of this include 2 parasites that infect humans, causing serious diseases. Symbiosis between Termites and Their Intestinal Protozoa. L. R. Cleveland. PNAS December 1, 9 (12) ; promovare-site.info
Other species have been shown to be important sources of some B vitamins, and recently one species of Bacterioides has been determined to be an essential component in the development of blood vessels of the small intestine.
Among all of the species known to science, none seem to stretch the boundaries of mutualism to the extent of that exhibited by the termites.
Arxiu d'etiquetes: termite protozoa
Termite bodies are literally crammed full of various symbiotic organisms which are, in many cases, crammed full themselves with their own microbiota.
To observe this firsthand, try this activity.
Within the digestive tract of these termites is a diverse microbial world that has evolved along with the termites' ecologic role in the environment. Termites, like most animals, lack the enzymes necessary to break down the principle components of plant tissues: How then do termites manage to survive on a diet of wood?
Well, actually they don't, at least not directly. Termites are important decomposers of wood. Termites, like most plants and animals, are composite organisms. The protist at left is just "one" of hundreds of thousands of microbes that live symbiotically within the termites digestive tract, and it is actually composed of at least 5 different organisms.
The "hair-like" projections are actually several different species of spirochete and bacillus bacteria that seem to function in movement. Still other bacteria live within the protist cell, releasing energy from the food that it absorbs while other bacteria produce the enzymes necessary for digestion of the cellulose and lignin fibers that are the main components of wood.
Within the termite live multitudes. Methane is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide.
No one microbe in the termite gut can do the job. A whole community of microorganisms is necessary. These microbes belong to three groups, bacteriaarchaea and protozoans. Organisms that live with one another for long periods of time are said to live in symbiosis.
The symbioses in the termite gut are often beneficial to both partners and so are called a mutualistic relationship. Sometimes neither partner can live without the other, so the relationship is called an obligate symbiosis.
The protozoans and the bacteria and archeae that live insided them often depend upon one another and cannot live without each other, so they are an example of an obligate symbiosis. The bacteria and archaea that live inside their partner are also called endosymbionts"endo-" meaning "within.
Bacteria and archaea are about a ten times smaller and appear as small specks in these photos. None of these organisms have a color and are largely transparent. To photograph them without using dyes to stain them which would kill them we used a special kind of microscope that uses Nomarski optics to distinguish the microbes from the surrounding water.
This gives three-dimensional images of the microbes. Photos courtesy of Dan Gage The protozoans come in a variety of shapes and move around rapidly.
termite protozoa | All you need is Biology
These are their flagella that they use to move. They consume wood particles through the larger end of the cell. They cannot break down the wood by themselves. They harbor bacteria inside them that do this for them and some of the chemical products that those bacteria produce are used as food by.Termite symbiosis: Internal guests digest cellulose
This is an example of a symbiosis or "living together".