The Relationship between Music and Language
Explore the connections between mathematics and music in the videos, podcasts , of the fundamental mathematical relationship between vibrating strings and. The relationship between the two musical elements are integrated. Lyrics need melody to convey emotion. Melody needs lyrics to tell the story. Music and language represent ubiquitous and complex cognitive systems. In evolutionary theories the idea of far-reaching similarities and a common.
Traditionally, music and language have been treated as different psychological faculties. This duality is reflected in older theories about the lateralization of speech and music in that speech functions were thought to be localized in the left and music functions in the right-hemisphere of the brain.
For example, the landmark paper of Bever and Chiarello emphasized the different roles of both hemispheres in processing music and language information, with the left hemisphere considered more specialized for propositional, analytic, and serial processing and the right-hemisphere more specialized for appositional, holistic, and synthetic relations.
This view has been challenged in recent years mainly because of the advent of modern brain imaging techniques and the improvement in neurophysiological measures to investigate brain functions.
Using these innovative approaches, an entirely new view on the neural and psychological underpinnings of music and speech has evolved. The findings of these more recent studies show that music and speech functions have many aspects in common and that several neural modules are similarly involved in speech and music Tallal and Gaab, There is also emerging evidence that speech functions can benefit from music functions and vice versa.
This field of research has accumulated a lot of new information and it is therefore timely to bring together the work of those researchers who have been most visible, productive, and inspiring in this field. This special issue comprises a collection of 20 review and research papers that focus on the specific relationship between music and language.
Of these 20 papers 12 are research papers that report entirely new findings supporting the close relationship between music and language functions.
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Two papers report findings demonstrating that phonological awareness, which is pivotal for reading and writing skills, is closely related to pitch awareness and musical expertise Dege and Schwarzer, ; Loui et al. Dege and colleagues even show that pre-schoolers can benefit from a program of musical training to increase their phonological awareness. Three research papers focus on the relationship between tonal language expertise and musical pitch perception skills and on whether pitch-processing deficits might influence tonal language perception.
Using ERPs obtained during the pitch and interval perception tasks, their study reveals earlier ERP responses in Mandarin speakers compared with controls to these pitch changes relative to no-change trials. In their elegant paper, Peretz et al. Taken together, these two studies illustrate the cross-domain influence of language experience on the perception of pitch, suggesting that the native use of tonal pitch contours in language leads to a general enhancement in the acuity of pitch representations.
Their study revealed that the performance of congenital amusics was inferior to that of controls for all materials including the Mandarin language, this therefore suggesting a domain-general pitch-processing deficit. Five research papers sought to examine interactions either between musical expertise and language functions or whether an interaction between musical and language functions is beneficial for phonetic perception.
Strait and Kraus report perceptual advantages in musicians for hearing and neural encoding of speech in background noise. They also argue that musicians possess a neural proficiency for selectively engaging and sustaining auditory attention to language and that music thus represents a potential benefit for auditory training. Their study thus supports the notion of a strong relationship between linguistic and musical rhythm in songs.
The fifth paper of this group Omigie and Stewart, demonstrates that the difficulties amusic individuals have with real-world music cannot be accounted for by an inability to internalize lower-order statistical regularities but may arise from other factors. Although there are still some differences between music and speech-processing, there thus is growing evidence that speech and music processing strongly overlap. They showed that long-term vocal—motor training might lead to an increase in volume and microstructural complexity as indexed by fractional anisotropy measures of the arcuate fasciculus in singers.
Most likely, these anatomical changes reflect the necessity in singers of strongly linking together frontal and temporal brain regions. Typically, these regions are also involved in the control of many speech functions. The beneficial impact of music on speech functions has also been demonstrated by Vines et al. They examined whether the melodic intonation therapy MIT in Broca's aphasics can be improved by simultaneously applying anodal transcranial direct current stimulation tDCS.
In fact, they showed that the combination of right-hemisphere anodal-tDCS with MIT speeded up recovery from post-stroke aphasia. In addition to these 12 research papers there are 8 review and opinion papers that highlight the tight link between music and language.
Patel proposes the so-called OPERA hypothesis with which he explains why music is beneficial for many language functions.
According to the OPERA hypothesis, when these conditions are met, neural plasticity drives the networks in question to function with higher precision than needed for ordinary speech communication. While Patel's paper is more an opinion paper that puts musical expertise into a broader context, the seven other reviews more or less emphasize specific aspects of the current literature on music and language.
Videos Majesty of Music and Math. Geometry in Music; Dmitri Tymoczko. Ever since Pythagoras used numerical terms to express intervals between notes and derived musical tones from geometrical patterns, mathematicians have linked music to numbers.
Online Master of Music in Music Education
Combining Math and Music. Eugenia Cheng, a mathematician who also is a concert pianist, describes how a mathematical breakthrough enabled Johann Sebastian Bach to write "The Well-Tempered Clavier" At the time that the video was recorded, Cheng was a visiting senior lecturer in mathematics at the University of Chicago.
David Kung on "Symphonic Equations: The Science Behind the Arts: The Maths Behind Music. University of Surrey, England.
More Videos Turning math into music. Sean Hardesty Rice University plays the opening of the Sibelius Violin Concerto and discusses the relationship between mathematics and music. The world's ugliest music: