Internal Computer Hardware — Introduction to Information and Communication Technology
Software - Computer programs and related data that provide the instructions for telling computer hardware what to do and how to do it. Relationship between. The main hardware and software components of a computer. Functions of different .. the computer. The difference between BIOS and Operating System( OS) is. Relationship Between Hardware and Software with Example: We can say the hardware and software as the heart and soul of a computer.
This chip is a Socket or Socket chip. MMX and external Level 2 cache inside the cartridge Cheapest chip.
title=Components of a Computer system and modes of use: Types of hardware
This is a Socket chip. This is a slow performer. This is a competitive performer. System ROM is first accessed during the boot process. The addresses are mapped into the last 64 KB memory page below the memory boundary. Adapter ROMs perform special adapter card operations. Virtually all display adapters have some type of video ROM. More details on memory addressing and ROM locations are provided in Chapter 9. All data must flow into and out of RAM.
It holds both programs and data. When a program is running executing and working on data, the program and most often the data reside in RAM. In a Windows environment, RAM is virtualized.
- Computer - Hardware
- Computer hardware and software
- Relationship Between Hardware and Software with Example
The operating system has 4 gigabytes GB of virtual memory where components and applications can reside. Windows translates the virtual address space into a combination of disk accesses and memory paging and allocation, translating the virtual address space into real physical PC RAM and disk addresses. Thousands of capacitors acting like leaky buckets comprise DRAM.
Older forms of RAM employed a parity chip for error checking. The parity chip created an extra bit depending upon just how many ones are in the byte or character stored. When the character is read from memory, the parity is recomputed and compared to the originally stored value.
If they matched, everything was OK. If they did not match, older PCs signaled "" or "Parity Check 2. Replacement involves replacing the entire minicircuit board instead of a single bad chip. RAM is rated and classified by access time.
The slowest RAM chips were nanoseconds nsand the fastest is around 10 ns. Typically RAM chip speeds are about 50 to 70 ns. For more details on RAM, see Chapter 5.
These are both DRAM that needs refreshing. They are, however, more tuned to the CPU chip's clocking and memory refresh operations and therefore speed up the PC by reducing CPU to memory transfer times.
They are specially designed to write the information into NVRAM without using a separate flashing program. However, a broader view would define BIOS functions as: These diagnostics are only effective in detecting major PC component malfunctions. It also loads the initial disk drive parameters from the fixed disk partition table. With Windows, these BIOS functions are used during the initial system startup and then replaced by Windows bit driver software. Firmware was initially used to store hardware setup and BIOS routines because it was easier to update than hardware.
In contrast, software stored on disk is the most flexible and easy to change. Firmware typically controls a PC when it is first switched on. Typical firmware would perform cold boot loading of the operating system from a fixed disk or from a network and then pass control to the operating system.
This technology was originally employed in the PC AT to store hardware configuration information in a nonvolatile battery-powered memory chip. A three- or six-volt lithium battery powered the CMOS memory chip.
Figure CMOS batteries. Be careful when changing any CMOS settings because, most often, what seems to be the best or fastest setting can cause the PC to go slower or to malfunction. Some servers have onboard SCSI controllers as well. The first onboard controllers were for the keyboard and the serial and parallel ports.
Next, systems incorporated bus mouse ports and floppy and fixed disk drive controllers.
These ports were initially routed to outside the PC chassis by pigtail connectors that fit into the expansion slot card covers at the rear of the PC. Such pigtail connections were used on Baby AT system boards. Disk drive controllers had parallel cables attached directly to the stake pin connectors on the MLB.
Today, these onboard controllers have their ports directly routed to a special connector area at the right rear of the MLB. The best performance is realized by assigning a single EIDE device to each controller. Expansion Slots Expansion slots implement the PC's system bus. The system bus connectors allow other circuit cards to be plugged into them.
Because they are card edge connectors, they are called expansion slots. The cards inserted in the edge-style bus connectors are referred to as daughter cards or expansion cards. The daughter card label was used because the cards were inserted into the motherboard. There are many types of application software as well. For example, word processing or spreadsheet applications are productivity software, and antivirus programs installed on a computer are an example of utility software.Computer Hardware & Software Lesson Part 1
Relationship Between Hardware and Software Essentially, computer software controls computer hardware. These two components are complementary and cannot act independently of one another.
The Relationship Between Hardware and Software
In order for a computer to effectively manipulate data and produce useful output, its hardware and software must work together. Without software, computer hardware is useless. Conversely, computer software cannot be used without supporting hardware. There are several categories of software, with the two main categories being operating-system software, which makes the hardware usable, and application software, which does something useful.
Examples of application software are Microsoft Excel and Angry Birds. In order to listen to the recorded music, you need three things: In this analogy, both the iPod and the speaker are examples of hardware.
The MP3 file, in this case, would represent software. Without the iPod or the speaker, you would not be able to listen to the MP3. By the same token, the iPod and the speaker would be worthless without the MP3 files to play.