How to survive long distance when you live on two different continents - Oneika the Traveller
The boundaries between the continents of Earth are generally a matter of geographical convention. Several slightly different conventions are in use. . Kazakhstan is also a transcontinental country by this definition, its West Kazakhstan and. The Continents of the World, an Index of nations and countries by continents, with Actually, all continents together constitute less than one-third of the earth's surface, literally! Alphabetical list of the capitals cities of Australia and Oceania. Continents are defined by their continental shelves. .. However, scientific groups from different countries inhabit the research stations.
Seven Continents Student's Page
Beyond the beach it gets even more interesting. The beach is a very small part of the Continental Shelf, a wide, relatively shallow underwater terrace that is part of the continental crust.
If you move further away you will get to a kind of cliff at the end of the terrace, the continental slope, where the shelf drops down to the ocean floor, you follow the slope and you reach the Abyssal Plain, a vast flat seafloor area hundreds of kilometers wide and thousands of kilometers long, at depths of 3, to 6, m 10, to 20, feet. Continents are formed when earth's rigid outer shell, the lithosphere, together with the ocean crust and the continental crust, the land where you walk on, glides over the kind of soft, highly viscous and less dense asthenosphere, the hot upper layer of earth's mantle.
This process is called plate tectonics.
The Formation of Continents The formation of continents takes time, long time, it takes millions of years. The various plates of the lithosphere are moving with a speed of 3 to 20 cm 1 to 8 inches per year relative to each other. The driving forces behind the process of continents to move around across the earth's surface is not yet fully understood. Plumes, jets of partially molten rock material rising to the Earth's surface at the ocean floor between mid-ocean ridges, adding matter to the crust and pushing the plates in opposite directions.
The various tectonic plates may move apart at oceanic ridges, collide at subduction zones, or slide past one another along fault lines. McCrae presented a panel of eight of these experts with a list of 26 different world cultures for which he had average personality data.
Then for each of each of the five main personality traits, McCrae asked the experts to organise the cultures into lists according to the seven highest- and lowest-scoring. Compared with the actual personality data, the experts performed no better than if they had simply been guessing. The rest of us seem to fare no better.How do Europeans really feel about each other? - The Economist
InAntonio Terracciano and his colleagues asked nearly 4, participantsmostly college students, from 49 cultures across six continents to estimate the average personality profile of a person from their own culture. A more recent study published in involving over 3, participants in 26 nations came to a similar conclusion.
View image of Personality An isolated population is likely to become more introverted and inward focused through the generations as bolder individuals are more likely to choose to emigrate What could explain these national differences in average personality?
The reasons are likely partly genetic, perhaps to do with historic migration patterns. For example, people strong on traits related to risk-taking and openness might be more likely to migrate, so these traits are likely to be over-represented in regions that were historically on the frontier of exploration; conversely, an isolated population is likely to become more introverted and inward focused through the generations as bolder individuals are more likely to choose to emigrate.
A recent series of studies conducted with islanders resident in several isolated Italian archipelagos put these principles to the test. Andrea Ciani at the University of Padova and his colleagues found that islanders are less extraverted and open-minded, but more conscientious and emotionally stable, than their mainland neighbours located 10 to 40 miles away. This is likely because, over time, bolder more open-minded individuals have chosen to emigrate away from the islands.
Supporting this, a sample of recent emigrants from the islands to the mainland were found to score higher on extraversion and openness than the remaining islanders. Ciani's team also genotyped a sample of islanders and mainlanders and found that a version of a gene previously associated with risk-taking the 2R allele of the DRD4 gene, which codes for a receptor for the neurotransmitter dopamine was less common among islanders. Undoubtedly environmental factors also play a part: Experts have also speculated that differences in climate could influence regional differences in personality, such as cold regions with a lack of sunlight contributing to greater emotional instability.
Living in a crowded environment leads us to adopt a more future-oriented mindset, such as investing more in long-term relationships Even population density could play a part. Recent evidence suggests that living in a crowded environment leads us to adopt a more future-oriented mindset, such as investing more in long-term relationships, perhaps in part as a way to deal with increased competition with other people; in other words, just the kind of approach you would associate with higher-trait conscientiousness.
How to survive long distance when you live on two different continents
Whatever the causes, once regional differences in personality are established, one possibility is that they may become self-perpetuating as there is evidence that people are drawn to live in areas occupied by others with similar character profiles to their own. Any cross-cultural differences in trait levels at the national level might contribute to, or at least reflect, international differences in such things as wealth, happiness, corruption, innovation, and health.
Higher-trait neuroticism, for example, is strongly associated with numerous negative health outcomes, including mental health diagnoses like anxiety and depression, but also chronic physical conditions like heart disease and dementia. It stands to reason that in countries where average trait neuroticism is higher, citizens will be more vulnerable to physical and mental ill health.
Personality differences around the world might even have contributed to the emergence of different political systems.