Understanding the links between dyslexia and speech, language and communication needs
Communication and language development is about more than talking. This lays a foundation for speech, which begins around nine months and typically. The link between SLCN and literacy is a very strong one; there is plenty of Good speech, language and communication skills are important in and later on in their language development, reading and writing can be. Speech and language are the skills we use to communicate with others. We form these Why do speech and language problems develop in some children?.
Subject Spoken language competence involves several systems. Children must master a system for representing meaning, and acquire a facility with the forms of language, ranging from the sound structure of words to the grammatical structure of sentences.
This knowledge must be joined with their social competence.
Much of this learning is accomplished without formal instruction, and what is known is largely tacit in nature. Preschool children begin to develop some awareness of this knowledge by rhyming words, for example, or taking a word apart into syllables.
This ability to think about the sounds in words is called phonological awareness. Early reading development in alphabetic languages such as English depends on the integrity of phonological awareness and other related phonological processing abilities.
It is common to differentiate between two main aspects of reading: Word recognition consists of knowing how a word is pronounced. Early in reading development, children need to recognize letters, be aware of and able to manipulate sounds within words, and use conventions about the relationship between letters and their pronunciation. In addition, the child needs to be able to interpret the meaning of the printed text. The skills involved in this aspect of reading are very similar to those used in listening comprehension.
Although word recognition and comprehension are often considered separately, they can influence one another over development, in a bidirectional way.
Delayed Speech or Language Development
For example, vocabulary knowledge contributes directly to growth in word recognition,2,3 and later in the school years, skill in word recognition predicts the rate of vocabulary growth. Children with poor listening and speaking skills are referred to as having a language impairment LI or developmental language disorder DLD: In addition to academic difficulties, several studies have shown elevated rates of behaviour problems among children with LI, including externalizing and internalizing problems, and have an especially strong relationship with ADHD.
Key Research Questions The prominent research questions have been concerned with the extent to which aspects of early language status are predictive of later reading and behaviour problems and what the possible bases might be for these relationships. Specifically, two hypotheses have figured prominently in the literature.
One hypothesis is that the associations between spoken language and later outcomes are causal. Alternatively, the association of language and reading problems with behaviour problems may rest on a common underlying condition such as a neuromaturational delay that results in poor achievement in both domains.
There are several possible causal relationships between language and behavioural disorders: This supports the notion that LI in conjunction with RD results in the child facing excessive failure, particularly within the classroom, which in turn results in reactive behaviour problems. Another possibility is a bidirectional relationship between language and behavioural difficulties. This idea is supported by evidence that language difficulties at age three increase the risk of conduct disorders at age five, and vice versa.
Several recent studies have addressed the question of whether certain profiles of language weaknesses are associated with different types of behavioural outcomes.
What is Communication and Language Development
There is also a need for classroom-based studies of how children with language difficulties respond to communication demands and failure. Finally, given the risk of adverse outcomes such as incarceration or victimization, there is a need to continue to identify experiences and skills that contribute to resilience in children with early language difficulties.
The basis of the relationship between early spoken language and later reading development is thought to be causal in nature, such that spoken language skills, especially phonological awareness and listening comprehension, are fundamental precursors to later successful reading.
Children with limitations in phonological processing are at risk for early decoding problems, which can then lead to problems of reading comprehension. Children with problems of listening comprehension are at risk for reading comprehension problems even if they can decode words. These skills can also dynamically interact over development.
The basis of the relationship between spoken language and later behaviour problems is less clear, although it seems possible that there are multiple mechanisms that could explain the relationship. In particular, academic difficulties that result from LI may contribute to the increased risk of behavioural disorders. Implications The evidence is compelling that a foundation in spoken language competence is important for the successful achievement of academic and social competence.
Children with poor language skills are therefore at risk for reading and psychosocial problems. Language difficulties could be identified efficiently at school entry. This identification process should be an especially high priority for children who already show signs of behavioural difficulties, given the high incidence and low identification of language difficulties in this group. Interventions are available for promoting language growth, and in particular, numerous programs exist to promote phonological awareness.
Additionally, intervention efforts need to focus on approaches that provide supportive educational environments, to reduce the stressors that may result in maladaptive behaviours.
Finally, early intervention efforts are warranted, to support the development of language skills prior to school entry. Preventing reading difficulties in young children. National Academy Press; Oullette G, Beers A. A not-so-simple view of reading: The Influence of Reading on Vocabulary Growth: A Case for a Matthew Effect. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research ;58 3: Prevalence of speech and language disorders in 5-year-old kindergarten children in the Ottawa-Carleton region.
The impact of nonverbal ability on prevalence and clinical presentation of language disorder: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry ;57 Hulme C, Snowling MJ. Children's Reading Comprehension Difficulties. Commission on Emotional and Learning Disorders in Children.
A national study of Canadian children with emotional and learning disorders. Psychiatric risk in children with speech and language disorders.
A baby who doesn't respond to sound or who isn't vocalizing should be seen by a doctor right away. But often, it's hard for parents to know if their child is just taking a little longer to reach a speech or language milestone, or if there's a problem that needs medical attention. Here are some things to watch for. Call your doctor if your child: Parents and regular caregivers should understand about half of a child's speech at 2 years and about three quarters at 3 years.
By 4 years old, a child should be mostly understood, even by people who don't know the child. What Causes Speech or Language Delays? A speech delay in an otherwise normally developing child might be due to an oral impairment, like problems with the tongue or palate the roof of the mouth.
And a short frenulum the fold beneath the tongue can limit tongue movement for speech production. Many kids with speech delays have oral-motor problems. These kids also might have other oral-motor problems, such as feeding difficulties. Hearing problems are also commonly related to delayed speech. That's why an audiologist should test a child's hearing whenever there's a speech concern. Kids who have trouble hearing may have trouble articulating as well as understanding, imitating, and using language.
- Language development and literacy
- Communication is Vital
- Supporting language development in the early years
Ear infectionsespecially chronic infectionscan affect hearing. Simple ear infections that have been treated, though, should not affect speech. And, as long as there is normal hearing in at least one ear, speech and language will develop normally. If you or your doctor think that your child might have a problem, it's important to get an early evaluation by a speech-language pathologist.
You can find a speech-language pathologist on your own, or ask your health care provider to refer you to one. The speech-language pathologist will evaluate your child's speech and language skills within the context of total development. The pathologist will do standardized tests and look for milestones in speech and language development. The speech-language pathologist will also assess: How Does Speech Therapy Help? The speech therapist will work with your child to improve speech and language skills, and show you what to do at home to help your child.
What Can Parents Do? Parental involvement is an important part of helping kids who have a speech or language problem. Here are a few ways to encourage speech development at home: Spend a lot of time communicating with your child. Even during infancy — talk, sing, and encourage imitation of sounds and gestures.
Read to your child. Start reading when your child is a baby. Look for age-appropriate soft or board books or picture books that encourage kids to look while you name the pictures.