The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional SAARC maintains permanent diplomatic relations at the United Nations as has developed links with multilateral entities, including the European Union. the International Monetary Fund, current as of April , and is given in US dollars. European Union and SAARC are important regional organizations. On February 14, February 14, By admin Let us briefly examine the causes of economic and political integration, Free trade agreements, freedom of labour, freedom of establishment within the member states was a result of this common. Pakistan-Afghanistan relations and the Indian factor. Pakistan Retrieved 9 November , from promovare-site.info refusal-join-cpec/ EU (European Union). (). Conditions for membership. U.S. Official: Afghan Security Forces Still Not Prepared to Fight.
Nor has it been able to enhance trade considerably. The agreement faces certain challenges such as a difficult business environment, overcoming port restrictions and increasing product coverage.
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation - Wikipedia
Port-specific restrictions have increased the transactions costs of trading across borders and have sometimes led to a virtual blockage of imports between the SAARC countries. SAFTA also allows member countries to retain sensitive lists of commodities and services that are out of the concessional ambit. This negative list is often held accountable for the lower volume of intra-regional trade between member countries and limits the scope for achieving a free trade regime.
The existence of restrictive rules concerning trade origin and destination of products reflect a protectionist attitude among members. High tariffs and stringent rules of origin, for example, often lead to inadequate administrative capacity and procedural delays disrupting the easy flow of goods.
As a result, members of SAARC indulge in illegal trading activities that are assumed to be easier than legal trade in the region. South Asian countries now follow a trend of bilateral trade agreements instead of multilateral agreement as the benefits of SAFTA are insignificant for their growing economies. Trade diversion is therefore a common phenomenon in the South Asian Region. Hostility between India and Pakistan has encouraged Pakistan to seek economic support from other developed nations such as China and the United States.
European Union Law and National Law of Member States The provisions of the treaties and secondary legislation are directly applied in the member states and the EU law has primacy over the national laws in all the member states. The states have to make necessary changes in their legal systems and economic systems before becoming a part of European Union.
The laws thus are uniform across the member states. Various constitutional provisions have been formulated in the member states to give EU law supremacy over the national law. European Communities Act is one such facilitating statute in United Kingdom. Although some member states like United Kingdom and Germany have reserved the final decision with their respective states to decide which law to follow when the EU law is in conflict their basic features of the Constitution, it is amazing to note that the union and the member states have always worked on the lines of conflict resolution and cooperation till date ,without giving rise to many issues of conflict between the two laws.
European Union and Trade: The citizens in the European Union have freedom of movement, freedom of trade in the union and freedom of establishment.
SAARC still marred by divisions
These facilities avail, sharing of labor and resources amongst the member states for mutual development. Firstly, before the attempt to compare both these institutions one has to understand that the European model of integration was a unique model. Many such differences between the institutions are highlighted below.
Almost all the members of the EU are Parliamentary democracies, having multi party system, free and regular elections and strong market economy. The specific aim of formation of SAARC was to promote regional economic cooperation among the member states and it did not have any historical reason of integration. The countries of SAARC lack economic complementarity, rather they are economically competitive markets where every country exports mostly the same goods like spices, cotton, jute etc.
Nonetheless, the P particip In the meantime, trade between the regions has been flourishing which helps the players understand encompassing conditions and smoothens the way for wide-ranging economic collaboration between the regions.
In spite of the gradual progress in the amount of imports and exports, the relationship seems to be equally beneficial to both trading region as seen in the following figure.
Eurostat Comext Statistical regime 4. Such achievements are contingent to struggles of social organizations rather than political or governmental one although none of them is accounted as fulfillment of the overall goals and objectives and does not guarantee any step forward toward regionalization.
India and Pakistan, the two most powerful countries of the region — both in economic and military terms — are trapped in a devastating issue Kashmir which is not resolved for more than half a century that has been deteriorating their bilateral relations regardless of any declarations for mutual cooperation or peace talks. Despite the fact that some policy dialogs are addressed in the EU-SAARC bilateral relations, no information on the success or impact of such dialogue exist.
However, the Asian organizations need to adopt the European regionalization and Easternize the integration model Pettman, R. On the other hand, EU is less interested in providing political support and ensuring enactment of all binding factors in order to make the member states prioritize regional primacies to foster regionalization. One of the reasons is that the EU, through its non-economic support to SAARC, is only interested in energy and environment, disaster risk reduction, communicable disease control, and transport — addressing the environment as cross-cutting issue P particip Ziaur Rahman, the former president of Bangladesh who was inspired by the economic integration and regionalization in other parts of the world.
At that time, it aimed at attaining security, stability and peace in the region. However, India and Pakistan did not appreciate the objectives much and their condition of acceptance, in spite being gradual, was mainly to remove areas such as security and bilateral issues that left SAARC vulnerable to the regional politics and inadequate regional competence Priyanka Kher Whereas the members somehow manage to join SAARC and create a region in South Asia, it remained one of the weakest regions in the world maybe due to ignoring the urgency of political unity, which is the only way to ensure achieving goals and objectives of SAARC.
Therefore, all of the member states and external influential players need to consider this issue seriously if the intention is to push the region toward achievement of its goals and objectives. It has crucial interests in the region not only in trade, finance and energy but also in politics, human rights and security.
The strategic Framework specifically aimed at the following areas: However, SAARC strategic objectives are so vague and less comprehensive that the EU cannot understand what the priorities and key agendas are P particip For instance, India and Pakistan are considered major players in the regions, which can ensure smooth regionalization if they put the political conflicts aside.
However, India, bearing a third-fourth of the GNP see figure 3 and population of the region has its major influences in the region Siddika, A. Due to its identical characteristic in the region, India never welcomed an integration that would have resulted in non-regional interference. In addition, Pakistan participated in the region mainly for its Indo- phobic political considerations rather than its intention to strengthen integration in the region Siddika, A.
As a result of long lasting conflicts among the member states, both the economic and political cooperation in SAARC region is progressing slowly.