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William the Conqueror

Unlike William the Conqueror fifty years later, Cnut would portray himself as the Edward the Confessor therefore spent his formative years in Normandy and . What's more, he had a good relationship with Tostig Godwinson (the brother of building burhs (fortified market towns), both to protect from future Viking raids . statistics mentioned above denote a business or market entrepreneur, When researching the history of entrepreneurship, William the Conqueror, and Jeff economic theories on the relationship between entrepreneur, business, profit, and .. Edward the Confessor of England, claimed that King Edward had named . Edward the Confessor’s grandfather, Richard, the Count of Normandy, was also the great-grandfather of William the Conqueror. Was William the Conqueror related to the previous kings of England? William, Duke of Normandy, was the first cousin once removed of King Edward.

The Bayeux Tapestry was probably commissioned by Odo, bishop of Bayeux and half-brother of William the Conqueror, to commemorate the Norman victory at Hastings in October Odo figures prominently in the work — and in one scene holds a club as he goes to fight for his brother. Bayeux Tapestry is going home after years — medieval history professor The tapestry also told a story that explained and justified the conquest.

Instead, he took the crown for himself. England had been linked to other parts of Europe — Scandinavia, in particular — for centuries, but this connection endured and created strong links between England and Normandy which were to last for several centuries. The conquering Normans married Anglo-Saxon women — and when they later went on to conquer parts of Wales and Ireland, they intermarried there, too.

The conquest had a longlasting impact on English, and indeed British and Irish, history. The great castles and vast cathedrals we associate with medieval England and enjoy visiting were part of the Norman legacy, as was a new tendency to look south to Europe, rather than to the north — as had been the case before, as settlers came to England from Scandinavia. Being continental in outlook was par for the course. Around 10, Norman French words entered the English languagechanging the way the English people expressed themselves then — and still do.

For example, the old Saxon words for livestock sheep, swine, cow were retained, but English took on the French way of talking about cooked meat mutton, pork, beef. New laws, such as the ending of slaverywere merged in the decades afterand the Anglo-Norman kings reformed English law and governanceintroducing many of the systems still in use today like the Exchequer which came from the continent.

Emma later claimed that they came in response to a letter forged by Harold inviting them to visit her, but historians believe that she probably did invite them in an effort to counter Harold's growing popularity.

He had Alfred blinded by forcing red-hot pokers into his eyes to make him unsuitable for kingship, and Alfred died soon after as a result of his wounds. The murder is thought to be the source of much of Edward's later hatred for the Earl and one of the primary reasons for Godwin's banishment in autumn She then summoned Edward and demanded his help for Harthacnut, but he refused as he had no resources to launch an invasion, and disclaimed any interest for himself in the throne.

There he was received as king in return for his oath that he would continue the laws of Cnut. In November he rode to Winchester with his three leading earls, Leofric of MerciaGodwin and Siward of Northumbriato deprive her of her property, possibly because she was holding on to treasure which belonged to the king. Her adviser, Stigandwas deprived of his bishopric of Elmham in East Anglia.

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However, both were soon restored to favour. Emma died in Siward was probably Danish, and although Godwin was English, he was one of Cnut's new men, married to Cnut's former sister-in-law. Soon afterwards, her brother Harold and her Danish cousin Beorn Estrithsonwere also given earldoms in southern England. Godwin and his family now ruled subordinately all of Southern England.

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However, in Sweyn was banished for abducting the Abbess of Leominster. In he returned to try to regain his earldom, but this was said to have been opposed by Harold and Beorn, probably because they had been given Sweyn's land in his absence. Sweyn murdered his cousin Beorn and went again into exile, and Edward's nephew, Ralph was given Beorn's earldom, but the following year Sweyn's father was able to secure his reinstatement.

He had no personal powerbase, and he does not seem to have attempted to build one. In —51 he even paid off the fourteen foreign ships which constituted his standing navy and abolished the tax raised to pay for it. King Magnus I of Norway aspired to the English throne, and in andfearing an invasion, Edward took command of the fleet at Sandwich. Beorn's elder brother, Sweyn II of Denmark "submitted himself to Edward as a son", hoping for his help in his battle with Magnus for control of Denmark, but in Edward rejected Godwin's demand that he send aid to Sweyn, and it was only Magnus's death in October that saved England from attack and allowed Sweyn to take the Danish throne.

According to the Vita Edwardi, he became "always the most powerful confidential adviser to the king".

Edward the Confessor

His men caused an affray in Doverand Edward ordered Godwin as earl of Kent to punish the town's burgesses, but he took their side and refused. Edward seized the chance to bring his over-mighty earl to heel. Archbishop Robert accused Godwin of plotting to kill the king, just as he had killed his brother Alfred inwhile Leofric and Siward supported the king and called up their vassals.

Sweyn and Harold called up their own vassals, but neither side wanted a fight, and Godwin and Sweyn appear to have each given a son as hostage, who were sent to Normandy. The Godwins' position disintegrated as their men were not willing to fight the king. When Stigand, who was acting as intermediary, conveyed the king's jest that Godwin could have his peace if he could restore Alfred and his companions alive and well, Godwin and his sons fled, going to Flanders and Ireland.

Both sides were concerned that a civil war would leave the country open to foreign invasion.

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Edith was restored as queen, and Stigandwho had again acted as an intermediary between the two sides in the crisis, was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in Robert's place. Stigand retained his existing bishopric of Winchester, and his pluralism was to be a continuing source of dispute with the pope. Godwin himself died in and although Harold succeeded to his earldom of Wessex, none of his other brothers were earls at this date. His house was then weaker than it had been since Edward's succession, but a succession of deaths in —57 completely changed the picture.

In Siward died but his son was considered too young to command Northumbriaand Harold's brother, Tostig was appointed. The fourth surviving Godwin brother, Leofwinewas given an earldom in the south-east carved out of Harold's territory, and Harold received Ralph's territory in compensation.