Please, help me to find this appunti linux giacomini pdf to jpg. I’ll be really very grateful. mips to machine code pdf · solar 2 apk filecrop down · sp 25 kielce. Video related to the work «a2» (ex «appunti di informatica libera», ex «appunti linux») and «from the ground up». · LinkedIn profile . From Matisse −Dictionary/html/ the HTML version of “Appunti di Informatica Libera” written by Daniele Giacomini.
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The objective of nanoLinux III is mainly didactic, to spread Appunti di informatica libera and to teach the basics of a Unix system. The name nanoLinux is associated with some more or less experimental works of Daniele Giacomini: In the latter case, once the file has been obtained, if this is compressed it is necessary to restore it in its original format, then one can start its transfer to a CD.
The file should have a name similar to the following:. To restore the file to its original format, if you use a Unix operating system, you can do the following:. The irmware configuration should appear as follows in order to start the CD-ROM before the hard disk system. In an older firmware, there might be a unique option for the start-up sequence. In this case, the letter ‘A’ represents the diskette, whereas the letter ‘C’ represents the hard disk. If you want to use nanoLinux III also on a computer where it is not possible to boot from CD-ROM, it is still possible to reproduce a boot diskette, which contains a reduced kernel, in which some important functions might be missing.
The standard kernel of nanoLinux III is pretty large in order to reduce as much as possible the need to load modules when it is used. The files which contain the diskette image can be found in the root directory of the CD-ROM, with the name boot.
BAT [ Enter ]. If you want to produce a different kernel, suitable for your own requirements, you can still prepare a boot diskette in the way described abovethen you should replace the files vmlinuz and cloop. Actually, you must necessaraly recompile the module cloop. Notice also that the original diskette should contain the config. You might get, according to the version of nanoLinux III, either a graphical logo, or just some explanatory text. The main kernel file of nanoLinux III includes many functions, therefore it could be used also to boot an operating system on a partition of the hard disk, which has everything that is required except a working boot mechanism.
If you don’t enter anything or if you just press the [ Enter ] key, the system is started from the hard disk which might contain a different operating system. If you don’t know which device corresponds to the CD reader, you can make some attempts, by knowing that, if you make an error, the kernel stops with a kernel panic message, that specifies that the entered device cannot be mounted.
If you use a reader that is not in perfect conditionsor if you use a copy of nanoLinux III from a disk that has not the requested optimal characteristics, even if the CD-ROM can be started, you risk to stop before the start-up procedure with a miserable kernel panic.
These inevitable errors are not ignored, both to allow the user to understand what happens with the system, and to allow the user to find other errors that might become a real problem. There are only two users: If you want to use nanoLinux III to access the network, you should configure the network interface or interfaces manually.
If you want to use lihux graphical interface, you must start it manually, but this should be done only as a nano user:. In addition to the information on the graphical adapter, the script requests also which keyboard map type should be used during the graphical session.
The initial suggested choice depends on the value of the LANG environment variable:. Request to specify the keyboard map. However, unless you have mounted disks with important data, directly switching off the computer should not cause negative consequences, because the CD-ROM cannot be altered. At the end of the work, the system does not offer the ejection of the CD; however since nanoLinux III does not interfere with the start-up of the system from the the hard disk, it can be left inserted in the reader.
The procedure to be used is described in the chapter However it is not possible to copy everything exactly as it is on the CD-ROM, because it is necessary to move something. Therefore, to simplify this operation and to be sure that all necessary things are recreated, you can just use the following script, with an argument indicating the device corresponding to the target partition, which should have already been prepared and initialised giacomino discussed before:.
Unfortumately, some CD readers which seem to work perfectly, do not read correctly the content of the CD, by removing complete directory branches and, sometimes, by transforming directories into empty executable files.
It is important to keep in mind this possibility when you use nanoLinux III, and especially when you try to install it, because you might get only a partial copy of the original CD. The copy requires some time. The commands above install a generic boot menu, which requires to enter the partition to start. Generally it is not advisable to use two different operating systems on the same machine, unless both are organised to live peacefully together.
If you prefer to avoid modifications of the hard disk start sector made by GRUB, you can still start the partition that contains the copy of nanoLinux III by using the CD-ROM, by entering, in this case, the value hda2 during the boot phase.
You should check the first three lines, that in this case should appear as follows:. Notice that you must enter two mount points associated to the same device file: You should change the password of the administrator and assign one to the regular users as soon as possible. For example, if your computer must have the dinkel. Once selectx has been run, you can then use startx in the usual way. Moreover there are other details that should be considered.
However, if you wish to reach something mounted within the main system, a more specific command is required. Notice however that sharing is allowed only for IPv4 addresses of ‘private networks’. Particularly it starts with an italian keyboard map, which however can be easily changed by using loadkeysas it appears in the following example where the british keyboard map is chosen:. As to the keyboard map used with X, the selectx script, which is automatically used during the installation from CD-ROM, selects a keyboard map suitable to the content of the LANG environment variable or, if no better choice is found, selects the international english keyboard.
These users correspond to a language code; for instance it for the italian language and en for the english language. By using these users instead of the generic nano name, you will get an automatic configuration of the LANG environment variable according to the local requirements. The mouse management is under the control of GPM and of the graphical system XFree86; it uses the information generated by GPM, without any direct access to the mouse.
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Display from the mouse script. It might happen that the gpm daemon does not start regularly, even if the predefined configuration is correct for the real situation.
In this case, you should restart the service manually in the way presented above. The former of these two scripts is used to control a simple system for the identification of some hardware components and for loading their relative modules; the latter one collects all that must be done at the end of the start-up procedure; giacomnii, it defines the type of characters to be used with the virtual consoles and tries to replace some files that are used for the configuration of the window managers.
With regard to the menu of Fvwm, you should notice that the options are not descriptive, but just contain the commands that should be entered on the character terminal to start each program.
appunti linux giacomini pdf to jpg
For instance, to start Ethereal you need to have the provileges of the root user, therefore the command is: This approach is useful to reduce the difference between the appuntti line use and the visual-intuitive one. Therefore, the graphical mode cannot be started with this user, because most application programs require to modify the personal directory of the user and would therefore fail.
The graphical environment of nanoLinux III is pretty simple. The options lijux the menu refer to the corresponding command.
Precisely it is Exim, which is configured to allow the delivery of messages also to nodes identified by an IP address, by using the following format:. However, all messages appear to have been transmitted by nano nanoi. With this approach, the delivery of messages to normal addresses, might not be allowed by the remote SMTP servers, because of the impossibility to resolve the original domain nano.
Together with Boa there are also Webalizer and ht: You should remember that you can update the statistics, which appear from the address http: Morever you can update the indexes by running rundig with the options -a and -i:. There is also a PHP interpreter, but in order to use it with Boa an intermediate script has been added. This script allows also to read the content of a directory, in order to simplify the tests, because in this way you can see the name of the files that can be interpreted by PHP.
Thereis a POP3 server, for didactic purposes, to allow the nano user to receive mail. If you want to use Mozilla to read the received messages, you can refer to the POP3 server of the local computer localhost.
Moreover, as already discussed, also the data sharing based on the NFS protocol is not active in a predifined mode. To activate these two services, you can do as follows:. It is also possible to use two scripts to start and stop both services, i. You can activate it, after correctly configuring the events that you want to check by using Iptables, as follows:. The work of this script depends on the presence of an external modem connected to a standard serial port.
If everything is correct, you can just start ppp-on with the provileges of the root user and follow the instructions. It prompts the entry of the supplier, the user name under which you are recognised, the password, the serial port corresponding to the modem and the ppp-on telephone number.
A connection activated as descibed above can be terminated by using the ppp-off script, or by killing giacomiji process corresponding to pppd. If you install nanoLinux III on the hard disk, you could modify this script in order to permanently enter some personal information, such as the name, the password and the device file used for the appuntti, by setting some environment variables, whose meaning should be intuitive:.
Since the physical port where a printer is connected is no longer a fixed value, the name of the printer is followed by an extension which allows to determine whether it is connected to a parallel or to a USB port; moreover you can specify whether it is the first or second printer.
In the extension, the letter ‘p’ is used for a link to a parallel port, whereas the letter ‘u’ is used for a USB port; moreover the final number allows to select the port: For instance if you have a printer compatible with the generic HP Linuc model, after checking with the printers script that the name laserjet exists, if this printer is connected to a USB port and if there are no other printers, you can use the liunx command as follows:. If the final number of the printer name is omitted it is assumed to be zero; if the complete extension is omitted, the first parallel port is used.
The following example refers to a printer compatible with giacominl filter liux laserjetconnected with the first parallel port:. This will allow you to print without the -P option. However, before adding this name, you should check whether it exists already in some other part of the file.
The following example refers to a printer compatible with the generic HP Laserjet model and giacomii to the first parallel port:. In this way it is possible to print, giacommini only if the printer is free and by remaining connected to giacomni print program until it finishes printing. If these exist and have been correctly initialisednanoLinux III activate them. If no partition of this type has been found, but you still want to activate the swap memory, you can create a file and then use it for the virtual memory.
This can be done by the following command:. For instance, the following command can be used to create the file nlnx3tmp. If the referred disk or the partition have a suitable size and there is sufficient space, the file is created and the swap of the memory is activated. If this is found, the virtual memory is automatically activated within it. Actually, if this file exists, it is assumed that the virtual memory should be lknux.
However, notice that the search terminates as soon as a file with this name is found. This allows to dynamically define the configuration of some apllication programs, such as the XFree86 and the PPP connection by switched line. For instance it is possible to change the DNS configuration, by changing the zones test.