Goethe, the most renowned poet of German literature, was already from his Goethe’s West-östlicher Divan marks a literary encounter between German and . Karl Richter, “Ein West-Öst-Dialog der Goethezeit: Aspekte einer. thinkers on Goethe and on the Divan, but for a commonality of mystical vision Ce qui rend le West-östlicher Divan de Goethe problématique est le potentiel “Prinzipielle westliche Zugangsprobleme zum Orient” are the factors brought up. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – Gesammelte Gedichte: Lieder – Balladen – Sonette – Epigramme – Elegien – Xenien Where is “Ost-westliche Divan” etc.
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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Westkicher is a true copy of the thesis, including any required diwam versions, as accepted by my examiners. I understand that my thesis may be made electronically available to the public. In ewstlicher it focuses especially on technical aspects of rhyme and complicating elements such as the formal consideration of unity and the contextual consideration of mystical allusions.
John, whose passion and dedication to the field of the 18th and 19th century German literature inspired me the moment I got to know the department of Germanic and Slavic. I am honored to have gotten this opportunity to work with him. John, thank you for your belief in my westtlicher and your constant constructive comments through the process, without which this thesis would have remained a dream.
Thank you for your encouragement in letting me develop my thoughts, westilcher you helped me get on track. I would like to thank my husband, Payam, who has encouraged me to pursue my studies and has given me his love and unwavering support through the ups and downs of life during the long research and writing process of this thesis.
My thanks go to the memory of my father. My heartfelt thanks to my dearest mom, whose unconditional love and support for her family continue to astonish me.
Thank you to my brother and his family. I would also like to thank Mr. Mehran Rad and his family for their support during my research in the field of classical Persian poetry. The topic, ideas and research in this thesis stem entirely from the author.
The supervisor assisted in matters of grammar and writing style. Khajeh Shamseddin Mohammad Hafez-e Shirazi: Secular Implications of the Ghazals 26 2. Translatability of Hafez 29 3. His Rejection of Hypocrisy 38 3.
Poem Analysis 75 4. Introduction Fifty years of poetic work by the fourteenth-century Persian classical poet Hafez resulted westliched the compilation of his Divan, a term used to designate the collected poems of a poet in eastern literature.
In later centuries many other translations appeared in a vast array of languages. This thus became the central research question for my thesis.
More precisely formulated, my research began with the question: The analysis in the thesis elucidates the peculiarities and challenges of the Persian language in the process of translation and the inevitable consequence of the transformation of the original imposed upon the weestlicher. Similarly, they both ignore the factors that caused this divergence, but conclude differently.
His essay is indicative of some of the problems Hammer coped with. Despite the existing difficulties, Hammer probably tackled the duwan with a lack of access to the materials required for an appropriate translation from a different linguistic culture Radjaieyet by doing so at least succeeded in enlivening Hafez in his native language.
The literary birth he engendered marked an Hafezian renaissance in nineteenth- century German literature. Here, relying on my native knowledge of Persian culture, language and history, I underlined words, names, metaphors, phrases and motifs which osh associated with the Orient and which gave signs of having given Goethe some inspiration linked to the original Persian version. This resulted in a list of approximately ninety names, words, phrases or themes. Goetbe this process of contextualization, a number of typically Hafezian themes emerged, so I began to prioritize those words and phrases on my list which were associated with them.
Editions of East-West Divan by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
As a result, I listed about forty themes that in my mind reflect the inspiration from Hafez, passed on to Goethe. Given the formal constraints of my thesis, I sot to focus on ten of these to make my case, and reduced the number for intensive consideration as listed belowwith lesser reference to the others: The first chapter of the thesis introduces Hafez, explains the origin of his lyrical form ghazal and describes its formal aspects.
Complicating factors of his poetry, such as the question of formal unity and mystical implications of the poems, are discussed. In this regard, the discussions underline the controversy of whether the unity of the ghazals lies in their formal characteristics or semantic structure.
He also knew Persian. The following is weslicher translation Hammer provided for the first line of ghazal twenty-two of the group Dal. The transcription of this line for comparison reads: In these lines, as in the whole poem, Hammer succeeded in creating two lines for each distich as in the original, while in the majority of his translations he created four lines for the two-line couplet of the original. With regard to the original semantics in this couplet, the rendering shows some deviations, which, despite their general accuracy, fail to convey fully the crafted aesthetics that unfolded in the mind of the Persian reader through the selection of some key words.
The two Persian words in Hafez, in contrast to the translation, westliicher as closing words in the original.
In the rhyming pattern of -aanand in taajdaaraanand and hoshyaaraanand rhyming patterns highlighted the flexibility of Persian grammar gave Hafez the freedom to craft the rhymes in the verbs of his two lines, a freedom which Hammer did not have in the German language.
This characteristic, which contributes to the acoustic qestlicher as well as the formal structure of the original distich, is lost in the translation.
The analysis in chapter two shows this as an occasional occurrence in the rendering, for which there is at times no clear explanation. XXXIX does not make the matter clear. The acoustic quality of the original, which is intensified by the rhyming halves of each distich, is further lost in most of the reproductions, as it is in the translation of this line examples underlined below: The latter part of chapter two elucidates further whether the message of Hafez is transferred fully in the reproductions for the western reader.
The chapter also discusses whether it is true, as Goethe scholarship has believed to date, that the poems are bereft of mystical implications, and also touches upon the formal aspects of the poems. His Divan was a productive literary response to that of Hafez, and became a great inspiration to the savants of Weimar, who continued in his footsteps and thus embarked upon setting more examples of this newly originated notion throughout the century.
The following is one of his widely quoted statements in this regard: He felt that it could stimulate his national literature. Looking closely at both, one sees a central theme emerge.
In both, the wager centres upon a single pleasing moment; it is the search to find the true essence of life. The distinction is, however, the fact that in the earlier work the protagonist made a pact with Mephistopheles in his quest for an answer that remained undiscovered by the unsatisfied protagonist. Nun so legt euch liebe Lieder An den Busen meinem Volke. Hafez Despite his role as a distinguished court poet and teacher, very little is known about the life of this fourteenth-century classical Persian poet, whose love poems have provided inspiration to the West and daily guidance to the families of his home country for centuries.
Sources vary from to for the year of his birth, and to for the year of his death. Most Hafez scholars thus avoid attaching specific dates to his works and instead indicate a general time period.
Many sources have suggested that one of the reasons why Hafez did not compile his poems during his lifetime is that the poems were under constant revision during the fifty years in which he wrote them. His tomb is located in his beloved garden, Mossalaa, next to the river Roknaabaad. In this regard, some of them believed in the unique musicality of the ghazals and even today the poems continue to be set to traditional Persian music.
European composers have also found that even the translations and adaptations of the majority of ghazals are adaptable to musical settings. Like Persian-speaking readers of Hafez, he recognizes onomatopoeic qualities in the verses such as those that imitate the sound of gurgling wine as it pours from a jug.
Hafez lived long enough to witness seven kings of three Persian dynasties, InjusMuzaffarids and Tamerlaneand his poems reflect the social influence exerted by each.
The influence of the lordship of the different rulers on the social circumstances, such as their hard policies on performing religious rituals and consequently closing the taverns, displays itself in his poems. Not all of the rulers were fond of Hafez and his poems and this disfavor perhaps caused him to be at times melancholic and elegiac. Hafez combines elemental fragments of these historical works–the mystical writings of Mowlavi gosthe the love poems of Saadi–for innovative effects in his ghazals.
Arberry suggests that in his youth the poet followed a monothematic principle, which insisted on non-philosophical utterances along subject lines such as earthly love and wine. At a later age, his style became owt sophisticated by employing implications of Sufism and inclining 5 Homayoun-Farrokh determines the history of Persian poetry to be eight thousand years by adding the era of Zoroastrianism. In part, this shows the political impact his court role had on his creative work, as this connection disallowed the writing of contrarian interests, particularly during the reign of tyrannous courts.
The Hafez reader should, therefore, consider both the sociopolitical and literary customs of fourteenth-century Persia, customs which Hafez reflected for both personal and political reasons. The mandatory personal and political investment of a court poet in court ideology led Hafez, a follower of the free-thinking creed, to adopt contemporary poetical customs as a means to disguise in his works his deep frustration with the status quo.
As mentioned, Hafez never did collate his body of work, which has sparked disagreement on the exact number of poems he composed. Comparisons among westlcher show noticeable differences in the volume of work the writer produced, and because of this discrepancy, some scholars believe that a number of Hafez poems has been attributed to him mistakenly.
Figures reported by him for comparison read: Arberry, Fifty Poems 1; Levy 33 The ghazal became a popular westlihcer lyrical form including up to fifteen distiches during the twelfth century. Qasida is a mono-rhymed lyric poem, which may run sometimes to over a hundred lines. Qasida The shared rhyme pattern aa, ba, ca… in the ghazal and qasida forms might be one of the reasons why they are said to share the same root.
Reuben Levy, in his book An Xiwan to Persian Literature, points out the following themes employed in the ghazal: In this regard, other Hafez scholars such as Rypka, Shafiq Shamel and Arjomand-Fathi have recognized and categorized four major types of the ghazal in the Divan. As most other westilcher, they agree on the existence of erotic, panegyric and mystical themes.
Rypka and Shamel name the fourth type as meditative, whereas Arjomand-Fathi prefers not to label the group and instead provides an explanation of the genre. A widely-quoted anecdote has circulated among scholars who have touched upon this issue throughout the centuries.
It goes like this: Michael Hillmann, in his Unity in the Ghazals of Hafez, conveys a common understanding of them. He also posits a multiplicity of themes in them and recognizes a lack of continuity among them, as each couplet carries a different theme. It might be worthwhile mentioning the famous metaphor that associates the Hafezian ghazal and its distiches with a pearl necklace and its individual pearls.
In this metaphor, the string of the necklace has been likened to the rhyme and metre of the ghazal, which is the only element holding the pearls distiches together. Rypka, a supporter of this metaphor, states: Other scholars, conversely, seek to attribute a form of unity to the inward form of the ghazal.
As Rypka mentions, the different readings of a poetic work by western and eastern receivers must be taken into consideration in the examination of a poem by Hafez as much as any other author of international readership.
Armed with the lavish literary devices of Persian poetry, he made good use of his literary heritage. Thus, one needs to familiarize oneself owt the literary devices of Persian literature, and in particular with those cherished by Hafez, in order to discover the full meaning of his verses. Arberry, Fifty Poems 18 The English translation of ihaam is indicative of the function of such a device: Under these circumstances, the meanings are said to be both deep and superficial, which makes the reader uncertain about what is right.