Definite descriptions, I shall argue, have two possible functions. 1] They are used to refer to what a speaker wishes to talk about, but they are also used quite. Keith Donnellan, “Reference and Definite Descriptions”. Due Feb 13, by 10am; Points 5; Submitting a discussion post; Available after Feb 2, at 12am. Keith Sedgwick Donnellan was an American philosopher and Professor ” Reference and Definite Descriptions” has been one of.
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The refsrence deep motivation is presumably that species are part of a genus, so that when one expresses a species name it is shorthand for a more complete description. The idea that uniqueness is descrpitions is suggested in work by Heimvon FintelElbourne, Rothschildand Schoubye The Semantics of DefinitesPh. In this vein, one widely held view, due to Kamp and Heimis that we could regard indefinite descriptions as expressions containing free variables which are bound by adverbs of quantification in the sense of Lewis interpreted as existentially quantified by the model theory, or perhaps bound by implicit existential closure operators Diesing Definire both with the following, which seems entirely natural.
Elbourne forthcoming believes that the problem can even be constructed in cases that are extensional if we quantify into the description. Please, subscribe or login to access full text content. A teacher announces the following to the class, with a single red haired student in the front row.
DescriptionsCambridge, MA: Some recent work in linguistics has even called into question the idea that definite and indefinite determiners correspond to logical elements in the analysis of the logical amd of natural language.
Here the problem is that the minimal event appears to contain ten sage plants, so we are left to ask how the pronoun, rendered as a definite description complete with a uniqueness claim, is supposed to work. Byanalytic philosophers widely accepted a view regarding the reference-relation that holds of proper names and that which they name which is known as descriptivism and attributed to Bertrand Russell. The problem is that the Russellian analysis seems to turn a contingent proposition into a necessary proposition.
To illustrate the problem, consider the following:. PragmaticsNew York: Representing Thoughts and LanguagePh. The present king of France read Anna Karenina. Causal-historical theory of reference  The “referential” and “attributive use” distinction. Now clearly this does not mean that I turned the stove off once in my life, but rather there is intuitively some relevant time when I turned it off—for example, when I left the house this morning.
What is negated in 4a is not a claim about some particular individual, but rather a general claim about the world—in effect a claim that the world contains exactly one individual that is presently the king of France and that whoever is presently the king of France exists.
F The present king of France wrote Anna Karenina. If you’re having trouble, email me. Hence names cannot be rigidified descriptions.
Conversational Implicatures and How to Spot Them. We typically believe that Anna Karenina was written by Tolstoy, who was not and is not the king of France, but do we really have a belief in which the king of France was not a bald Nazi? Here we are using the restricted quantifier notation adopted in Neale A2 An indefinite NP in an argument position, however, ends up denoting an individual, because the semantics involves a free function variable that assigns an individual to the restriction predicate.
Volume 12Amherst: Of course it is possible to ask defiite it means to assert an open sentence, but notice that again we are converging on a view in which the determiners fall out, leaving behind a free variable.
Keith Donnellan – Wikipedia
Hide score total for assessment results. That is, many apparently referential constructions may in fact be quantificational. As we will see, all of these claims can be put under pressure, and all three arguably collapse under that pressure.
Referential uses of indefinites must be either a function of desctiptions scope or a semantically referential indefinite determiner. Kripke also stressed that this is not really a point about conditional or modal sentences—the same point can be made refsrence simple declarative sentences evaluated in a counterfactual situation. Classical, Early, and Medieval World History: See Everett and Hofweber and French and Wettstein for papers on these general issues, and see Zaltafor a robust defense of the nonexistent object strategy.
Reference and Definite Descriptions
One option, explored by ReinhartKratzerand Winteremploys the device of choice functions. As noted in the beginning of this article, the Russellian account of descriptions not only offers a quantificational as opposed to a referential account of descriptions, but it packs three different claims into the analysis of descriptions: He turned on the TV.
We sometimes drop the outer parentheses when it is clear what the scope of the restricted quantifier is, and we sometimes add parentheses around the entire formula for disambiguation. Philosophers have also been attracted to this view. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
For example, the case in which no boys bought any dogs. Oxford Descriptjons Press, 13— Philosophy of LanguageCambridge, MA: In this case, the proposition literally expressed is true, but what I intend to communicate is mistaken.
There are circumstances in which the Russellian gloss in 57 is true, but 56 is not true. Additional criticism of 2-dimensionalism criticism can be found in Block and Stalnaker and Byrne and Pryor That is, an existential claim refinite there is an F that is G, plus a signal that this is given information, is often enough to allow us to implicate that there is unique F that is G.
The idea is that the content of the description could consist solely of that property. From this bit of information, the pragmatics might allow us infer that there is a unique dog.
How to cite this entry. To illustrate the problem, consider the following: Kripke – – In Peter A. Classical, Early, and Medieval Prose and Writers: