most Azerbaijanis in Iran referred to themselves as Turks. .. 12 Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi; Heyat, “Regression of Azeri Language.” 13 E.M. 3 M.T. Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi. Ikinci chap (Tebriz: Artun, ). 4 Rahim Rayees-Nia, Azerbaijan dar Seir-e Tarikh-e Iran, 2 vols. (Tabriz: Nima. compared with more than 20 million Azeris in Iran. The two from northwestern Iran to the Caspian Sea in the east M.T. Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi.

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The Multiple Identities of Azerbaijan

Strange Lands and Friendly People. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was formed on December 12,followed by the formation of the Kurdish Republic a month later. Costa Mesa, California, Mazda: The officially fabricated Iranian history was rapidly replacing the existing oral and written histories of various ethnic groups. From the beginning of the movement, the ADP failed to produce a comprehensive literature outlining the goals of the movement.

Among the important published works after the revolution, one could mention L. Soon after, he centralized power and authority in Tehran, terminated the semi-autonomous status of Azerbaijan and Kurdistan, banned the usage of all non-Persian languages in any written form, and set out to enforce his Persian racist ideology throughout the country.

On August 25,the Red Army invaded Azerbaijan, pushing the Pahlavi regime’s military out of Azerbaijani territory. After the failure of Iranian revolution, it seems that the Azerbaijani political parties and intellectuals are thinking twice before tying the destiny of Azeri people to maintenance of Iran’s territorial integrity.

In the Kurdish city of Sanandaj, a group of workers and peasants came together and formed a party called Social Dimukrat Social Democrat. Aryanization and Persianization of socializing agents such as the education system took a new turn, accelerating with the passage of time.

In May the Soviet forces left Iran. The oppressed and marginalized peoples of Azerbaijan and Kurdistan were among various Iranian nationalities and groups that took notice of the opportunity provided by the war and sought to implement their legitimate social, cultural and national demands.

On December 3, Pishevari assured the Azerbaijnis that the national army of Azerbaijan was ready to defend the republic. Notwithstanding the roles played by the US, the USSR, and the Britain in the defeat of the movement, one important internal factor remains central in the fall of the two republics.


Khiyabani’s ‘Democratic Party of Azerbaijan’ put out turkleribin newspaper called Tajaddud Progress tarjxi began spreading revolutionary and democratic ideas in Azerbaijan.

After the invasion of Azerbaijan, the Shah’s army marched into the neighboring Republic of Kurdistan. Writings on Repression in Iran. The ADP leaders are blamed for the defeat of the movement in that they failed to Iranize the democratic movement by focusing on Azerbaijan alone. Adopting an orthodox class-based approach, the leftist literature, in general, views the aspirations of Azerbaijani people for self-determination through the class lens, seeking to subordinate various racial, national, social, cultural and linguistic issues to issues of class and relations of economics see for example Nabdel The Iranian army, however, looked like anything but peaceful.

Meanwhile, discourses concerning Aryanization and de-Aryanization of various nationalities living in Iran continue as ever British Academic Press, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi. The rapid deterioration in socio-political sphere, coupled with the destructive impact of 8-year Iran-Iraq war, came to play a major role in determining the nature of future struggle.

The invading army stayed in Azerbaijan for five years, continuing the persecution of ADP supporters. On December 10, Qavam’s army reached Azerbaijani territory. Considering the fact that the majority of Azerbaijani feudal lords had already run away from Azerbaijan in the process of the democratic movement, this distribution amounted to a significant portion of agrarian esoi see also Mehrban, ; Atabaki, Turmlerinin month later, on February 12, a Kurdish Republic was formed in the neighboring Kurdistan, declaring the city of Mahabad as its capital.

In the revolutionary atmosphere of the time, various nationalistic demands and irwn began to emerge particularly in Kurdistan, Khuzistan, Azerbaijan and Baluchistan. Normally it was left to the benevolence of the landlord to decide what to give to peasant in exchange for his cultivation of the land. Independent research on the movement was and is banned by both the monarchic and the Islamic regimes, respectively.

Achievements of the Movement The Azerbaijan Democratic Government quickly proceeded to carry out its plans. Owing to the nature of their organization, the authors adopt an Iranian nationalistic viewpoint, greatly emphasizing the territorial integrity of Iran.


After a short while, the newly formed republic was invaded by the Red Army and was turned into one of the Socialist Soviet Republics see also Altestadt, Power and Identity under Russian Rule.

When they heard the news of Azerbaijan’s surrender, disagreement and controversy fell among the leaders. The reform resulted in distribution of overhectares of land amongst more than one million landless peasants Tudeh ; Atabaki The Soviets were very concerned about the security of their borders with Iran and an enormously beneficial oil concession meant that their active presence in Iranian affairs would be guaranteed.

The Multiple Identities of Azerbaijan | Arastirmax – Scientific Publication Index

In his reporting of the national census that had taken place in Azerbaijan in the yearhe wrote: A big texture company named Zefer was established. The nationalistic and socio-political demands of Azerbaijani people were legitimate demands rooted in their culture and history. Presumably, such a political organization had existed during the Azerbaijani democratic movement.

It issued a program that granted women the right to vote; tarix announced that the private property would be respected but that the government would distribute to the landless farmers the state-owned lands as well as the lands of reactionary landlords who had run away from Azerbaijan. Javadi, Hasan and K.

Soon, pamphlets and magazines began to circulate in Azeri language, accompanied by hitherto forbidden folkloric songs, dances, literary gatherings, wearing of indigenous clothing, and so forth. As a major step in eliminating feudal oppression, it started a land distribution program all over the Republic. The 12th of the December, the day of occupation, was commemorated as a national holiday and was tjrklerinin in all government offices, schools and streets.