4. The Employment Relationship. John W. Budd and Devasheesh Bhave from different schools of thought see the .. fair treatment, dignity, and status.' Others. four schools of thought about the employment relationship are? -mainstream economics school -human resources management school -industrial relations. Industrial relations; Labour economics · Labour history · Labour law · v · t · e. Industrial relations or employment relations is the multidisciplinary academic field that studies 4 References . The perspective of the critical school is sometimes referred to as the conflict model, although this is somewhat ambiguous, as pluralism.
I used the questions posed as the outline format. Mainstream Economics Its view on unions e.
Industrial relations - Wikipedia
The mainstream economics view is negative. It does not single out unions, but instead combines it with any intervention into the market, such as government intervention like minimum wage laws.
Unions are seen as hampering the supply of labor.
Because the mainstream economic view is based on competitive markets being the perfect market, unions limit the supply of labor to business.
For the mainstream economic view, the relationship between organizations and employees is perfect.
The labor works for the employer and the employer supplied the workers with work. If the arrangement is unsuitable for either side, then one or the other terminates the employee. Employees can quit or employers can let go to return the situation to perfect balance.
However, markets are not perfect and in imperfect markets, the employment relationship is imperfect. There is either not enough labor or not enough jobs. In the mainstream economics sees the union as creating the human supply problem or as limiting the actions of companies to rid themselves of labor to balance stakeholder and shareholder interests. Overview[ edit ] Industrial relations examines various employment situations, not just ones with a unionized workforce.
However, according to Bruce E.
Kaufman, "To a large degree, most scholars regard trade unionismcollective bargaining and labour— management relations, and the national labour policy and labour law within which they are embedded, as the core subjects of the field. However, it is generally regarded as a separate field of study only in English-speaking countries, having no direct equivalent in continental Europe.
Industrial relations has three faces: In this vein, industrial relations scholarship intersects with scholarship in labour economicsindustrial sociologylabour and social historyhuman resource managementpolitical sciencelawand other areas. Industrial relations scholarship assumes that labour markets are not perfectly competitive and thus, in contrast to mainstream economic theoryemployers typically have greater bargaining power than employees.
Industrial relations scholarship also assumes that there are at least some inherent conflicts of interest between employers and employees for example, higher wages versus higher profits and thus, in contrast to scholarship in human resource management and organizational behaviourconflict is seen as a natural part of the employment relationship. Industrial relations scholars therefore frequently study the diverse institutional arrangements that characterize and shape the employment relationship—from norms and power structures on the shop floor, to employee voice mechanisms in the workplace, to collective bargaining arrangements at company, regional, or national level, to various levels of public policy and labour law regimes,[ citation needed ] to varieties of capitalism  such as corporatismsocial democracyand neoliberalism.
When labour markets are seen as imperfect, and when the employment relationship includes conflicts of interest, then one cannot rely on markets or managers to always serve workers' interests, and in extreme cases to prevent worker exploitation. Industrial relations scholars and practitioners, therefore, support institutional interventions to improve the workings of the employment relationship and to protect workers' rights. The nature of these institutional interventions, however, differ between two camps within industrial relations.
In the workplace, pluralists, therefore, champion grievance procedures, employee voice mechanisms such as works councils and trade unionscollective bargaining, and labour—management partnerships.
In the policy arena, pluralists advocate for minimum wage laws, occupational health and safety standards, international labour standardsand other employment and labour laws and public policies. From this perspective, the pursuit of a balanced employment relationship gives too much weight to employers' interests, and instead deep-seated structural reforms are needed to change the sharply antagonistic employment relationship that is inherent within capitalism.
Militant trade unions are thus frequently supported. History[ edit ] Industrial relations has its roots in the industrial revolution which created the modern employment relationship by spawning free labour markets and large-scale industrial organizations with thousands of wage workers.
Labor Relation Theories: Schools of thought and unions
Low wages, long working hours, monotonous and dangerous work, and abusive supervisory practices led to high employee turnover, violent strikesand the threat of social instability. Intellectually, industrial relations was formed at the end of the 19th century as a middle ground between classical economics and Marxism ,[ citation needed ] with Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb 's Industrial Democracy being a key intellectual work.
Institutionally, industrial relations was founded by John R.