Byzantine period - Church and State in Constantinople
Manuals of Orthodox canon law as the model of church–state relations. Thus the Church in Constantinople had all the power of the state behind it, while the but the Iconoclastic Controversy embittered relations between Rome and. How did Theodora change the Byzantine state in ways which were beneficial to By the turn of the millennium, the Eastern Church of the Byzantine Empire and How did the Byzantine Empire's relationship to Christianity change over time?.
The Western Church remained firmly in support of the use of religious images, though the church was still unified at this time. In addition, there were other disputes, including disagreement over the the source of the Holy Spirit, whether leavened or unleavened bread should be used in the Eucharist, and the Bishop of Rome's claim to universal jurisdiction.
In response, the pope in the west declared a new emperor in Charlemagne, solidifying the rift and causing outrage in the east. The empire in the west became known as the Holy Roman Empire. Map of eastern-western allegiances in with former country borders. How did Christianity change in the period leading up to the East-West Schism?
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However, during the High Middle Ages, the Empire began to decline. It lost Anatolia, which is most of modern-day Turkey, during the Battle of Manzikert in It also suffered a defeat against the Normans in the same year. Its capital city was devastated during the Sacking of Constantinople in Map of the changes in the borders of the Byzantine Empire from to CE.
Map of the changes in the borders of the Byzantine Empire. Even after Constantinople was reconquered by the Byzantines inthe empire was drastically weakened.
By the fifteenth century, Byzantine territory barely exceeded Constantinople.
- State church of the Roman Empire
- Byzantine Empire
- Byzantine culture and society
In —when the Ottomans conquered Constantinople, renaming it Istanbul—the Byzantine Empire came to an end. Article written by Eman M. Elshaikh and partially adapted from Boundless and Ancient Encyclopedia.
The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press, The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. The Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire. Cambridge University Press, A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press, Justinian I Justinian I, who took power in and would rule until his death inwas the first great ruler of the Byzantine Empire.
Many great monuments of the empire would be built under Justinian, including the spectacular domed Church of Holy Wisdom, or Hagia Sophia.
Justinian also reformed and codified Roman law, establishing a Byzantine legal code that would endure for centuries and help shape the modern concept of the state.
Debts incurred through war had left the empire in dire financial straits, however, and his successors were forced to heavily tax Byzantine citizens in order to keep the empire afloat. During the seventh and eighth centuries, attacks from the Persian Empire and from Slavs, combined with internal political instability and economic regression, threatened the stability of the empire. A new, even more serious threat arose in the form of Islamfounded by the prophet Muhammad in Mecca in InMuslim armies began their assault on the Byzantine Empire by storming into Syria.
Iconoclasm During the eighth and early ninth centuries, Byzantine emperors beginning with Leo III in spearheaded a movement that denied the holiness of icons, or religious images, and prohibited their worship or veneration.
Though it stretched over less territory, Byzantium had more control over trade, more wealth and more international prestige than under Justinian.
The strong imperial government patronized Byzantine art, including now-cherished Byzantine mosaics. Rulers also began restoring churches, palaces and other cultural institutions and promoting the study of ancient Greek history and literature. Greek became the official language of the state, and a flourishing culture of monasticism centered on Mount Athos in northeastern Greece. Monks administered many institutions orphanages, schools, hospitals in everyday life, and Byzantine missionaries won many converts to Christianity among the Slavic peoples of the central and eastern Balkans including Bulgaria and Serbia and Russia.
The Crusades The end of the 11th century saw the beginning of the Crusadesthe series of holy wars waged by European Christians against Muslims in the Near East from to As armies from France, Germany and Italy poured into Byzantium, Alexius tried to force their leaders to swear an oath of loyalty to him in order to guarantee that land regained from the Turks would be restored to his empire. Justinian definitively established Caesaropapism believing "he had the right and duty of regulating by his laws the minutest details of worship and discipline, and also of dictating the theological opinions to be held in the Church".
Patriarchate and Pentarchy A map of the five patriarchates in the Eastern Mediterranean as constituted by Justinian I. Rome is coloured in pink, Constantinople in green, Antioch in blue, Jerusalem in pink and Alexandria in yellow. Leo III extended the jurisdiction of Constantinople to the territories bordered in pink.
Emperor Justinian I assigned to five sees, those of RomeConstantinopleAlexandriaAntioch and Jerusalema superior ecclesial authority that covered the whole of his empire.
The First Council of Nicaea in reaffirmed that the bishop of a provincial capital, the metropolitan bishop, had a certain authority over the bishops of the province. By a canon of contested validity,  the Council of Chalcedon placed Asia and Pontus which together made up Anatoliaunder Constantinople, although their autonomy had been recognized at the council of It maintained that, in accordance with the First Council of Nicaea, only the three " Petrine " sees of Rome, Alexandria and Antioch had a real patriarchal function.
The Emperor reacted by transferring these dioceses to the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople, thereby making Empire and Patriarchate of Constantinople coextensive see map.
The Rashidun conquests began to expand the sway of Islam beyond Arabia in the 7th century, first clashing with the Roman Empire in That empire and the Sassanid Persian Empire were at that time crippled by decades of war between them. By the late 8th century the Umayyad caliphate had conquered all of Persia and much of the Byzantine territory including EgyptPalestineand Syria. Suddenly much of the Christian world was under Muslim rule.
Over the coming centuries the successive Muslim states became some of the most powerful in the Mediterranean world. Though the Byzantine church claimed religious authority over Christians in Egypt and the Levantin reality the majority of Christians in these regions were by then miaphysites and members of other sects.
The new Muslim rulers, in contrast, offered religious tolerance to Christians of all sects. Additionally subjects of the Muslim Empire could be accepted as Muslims simply by declaring a belief in a single deity and reverence for Muhammad see shahada. As a result, the peoples of Egypt, Palestine and Syria largely accepted their new rulers and many declared themselves Muslims within a few generations.