Basic Concepts of Food Security: Definition, Dimensions and Integrated Phase Classification
The Four Dimensions of Food Security,. Food Insecurity to analyze food insecurity situations. relationships, prices fixing mechanisms, ). Examples of Instruments to Assess Food and Nutrition Security at Different Social .. The less direct the relationship between a causal factor of malnutrition and . the Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping (VAM) project to analyze the vul-. will analyze the next possible steps prospects and challenges in the next decade for global food security. Today, there Thus, it is highly important to approach food security The relationship between economic country stability quality and quantity and have serious effects on the five dimensions of food security (Fig. 1).
Seasonal food insecurity can result from the regular pattern of growing seasons in food production. Chronic and transitory food insecurity are linked, since the reoccurrence of transitory food security can make households more vulnerable to chronic food insecurity. Chronic food insecurity translates into a high degree of vulnerability to famine and hunger; ensuring food security presupposes elimination of that vulnerability.
Malnutrition Children with symptoms of low calorie and protein intake and a nurse attendant at a Nigerian orphanage in the late s Many countries experience ongoing food shortages and distribution problems. These result in chronic and often widespread hunger amongst significant numbers of people.
Human populations can respond to chronic hunger and malnutrition by decreasing body size, known in medical terms as stunting or stunted growth. It leads to higher infant and child mortality, but at rates far lower than during famines. Stunting itself can be viewed as a coping mechanism, bringing body size into alignment with the calories available during adulthood in the location where the child is born.
Challenges to achieving food security[ edit ] Global water crisis[ edit ] See also: Water resource policy Irrigation canals have opened dry desert areas of Egypt to agriculture. Water deficitswhich are already spurring heavy grain imports in numerous smaller countries,  may soon do the same in larger countries, such as China or India. Other countries affected include Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran.
This will eventually lead to water scarcity and cutbacks in grain harvest. Even with the overpumping of its aquifersChina is developing a grain deficit. Most of the 3 billion people projected to be born worldwide by mid-century will be born in countries already experiencing water shortages. After China and India, there is a second tier of smaller countries with large water deficits — Afghanistan, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Mexico, and Pakistan. Four of these already import a large share of their grain.
Only Pakistan remains self-sufficient. But with a population expanding by 4 million a year, it will likely soon turn to the world market for grain. Multimillion-dollar investments beginning in the s by the World Bank have reclaimed desert and turned the Ica Valley in Peru, one of the driest places on earth, into the largest supplier of asparagus in the world. However, the constant irrigation has caused a rapid drop in the water table, in some places as much as eight meters per year, one of the fastest rates of aquifer depletion in the world.
The wells of small farmers and local people are beginning to run dry and the water supply for the main city in the valley is under threat. As a cash crop, asparagus has provided jobs for local people, but most of the money goes to the buyers, mainly the British.
A report concluded that the industry is not sustainable and accuses investors, including the World Bank, of failing to take proper responsibility for the effect of their decisions on the water resources of poorer countries.
Land degradation and Desertification Intensive farming often leads to a vicious cycle of exhaustion of soil fertility and decline of agricultural yields. Climate change and agriculture Extreme events, such as droughts and floods, are forecast to increase as climate change and global warming takes hold.
Lessons from the IPCC SREX Report, the effects will include changing productivity and livelihood patterns, economic losses, and effects on infrastructure, markets and food security. Food security in future will be linked to our ability to adapt agricultural systems to extreme events.
An example of a shifting weather pattern would be a rise in temperatures. As temperatures rise due to climate change there is a risk of a diminished food supply due to heat damage.Improving urban food security in Central Africa
From this the price of grain will rise, along with the developing nations trying to grow the grain. Due to this, every 2—2. The timing and length of the growing seasons, when farmers plant their crops, are going to be changing dramatically, per the USDA, due to unknown changes in soil temperature and moisture conditions.
His approach is to explore the vulnerability of food systems to climate change and he defines vulnerability to climate change as situations that occur when relatively minor environmental problems cause major effects on food security.
Examples of this include the Irish Potato Famine  [ dubious — discuss ], which was caused by a rainy year that created ideal conditions for the fungal blight to spread in potato fields, or the Ethiopian Famine in the early s. Inthe hungry population could range from million to million with climate change Chen et al. By the yearCereal crops will decrease from 15 to 19 percent, temperatures are estimated to rise from 1 degrees Celsius to 2. In prediction farming countries will be the worst sectors hit, hot countries and drought countries will reach even higher temperatures and richer countries will be hit the least as they have more access to more resources Devereux et al.
From a food security perspective, climate change is the dominant rationale to the increase in recent years and predicted years to come. Agricultural diseases[ edit ] Diseases affecting livestock or crops can have devastating effects on food availability especially if there are no contingency plans in place. In their centers of origin wild wheat plants are screened for resistance to rust, then their genetic information is studied and finally wild plants and modern varieties are crossed through means of modern plant breeding in order to transfer the resistance genes from the wild plants to the modern varieties.
Food versus fuel Farmland and other agricultural resources have long been used to produce non-food crops including industrial materials such as cottonflaxand rubber; drug crops such as tobacco and opiumand biofuels such as firewoodetc. In the 21st century the production of fuel crops has increased, adding to this diversion. However technologies are also developed to commercially produce food from energy such as natural gas and electrical energy with tiny water and land foot print.
Political corruption Nobel Prize winning economist Amartya Sen observed that "there is no such thing as an apolitical food problem. The 20th century has examples of governments, as in Collectivization in the Soviet Union or the Great Leap Forward in the People's Republic of China undermining the food security of their own nations. Governments sometimes have a narrow base of support, built upon cronyism and patronage.
Fred Cuny pointed out in that under these conditions: Governments in most countries give priority to urban areas, since that is where the most influential and powerful families and enterprises are usually located. The government often neglects subsistence farmers and rural areas in general. The more remote and underdeveloped the area the less likely the government will be to effectively meet its needs.
Intra-household food dynamics and consequences during food insecurity are depicted in figure 1. Consequences of Food Insecurity in Households. Adapted from Hamelin et. Acute or Transitory Food Insecurity Sudden lack of food or reduction in the ability to produce or access minimum requirement of food due to short-term shocks and fluctuations in food availability and food access, including year-to-year variations in domestic food production, food prices and household incomes can be defied as Acute or Transitory Food Insecurity.
What are the three dimensions of food security? Food Security in India-Economics - Class 9
Dimensions of Food Security Food security is the outcome of food system operating efficiently. Efficient food system contributes positively to all dimensions of food security. Following are the dimensions of food security figure 2: Food availability This dimension addresses supply side of the food security and expects sufficient quantities of quality food from domestic agriculture production or import.
This dimension of food security at different levels can be assessed by precipitation record, food balance sheet, food market survey, agricultural production planet.
Similarly, indicators of food security for this dimension at different levels are fertility rate, food production, population flows, harvesting time, staple food production, food storage, consumption of wild foods etc. Food access is another dimension of food security which encompasses income, expenditure and buying capacity of households or individuals.
Food access addresses whether the households or individuals have enough resources to acquire appropriate quantity of quality foods. Some of the indicators of this dimension at different levels are food price, wage rate, per capita food consumption, meal frequency, employment rate etc.
Interventions to improve this dimension of food security are inter alia on-farm, off-farm and non-farm employment creation, school-feeding program, breast —feeding campaign etc. Food utilization Food utilization is another dimension of food security which addresses not only how much food the people eat but also what and how they eat.
It also covers the food preparation, intra-household food distribution, water and sanitation and health care practices. Stunting rate, wasting rate, prevention of diarrhoeal diseases, latrine usage, weight-for-age, goitre, anaemia, night blindness etc are the indicators at different level for this dimensions which can be assessed by demographic and health survey, immunization chart etc.
Stability This dimension addresses the stability of the other three dimensions over time.
People cannot be considered food secure until they feel so and they do not feel food secure until there is stability of availability, accessibility and proper utilization condition. Instability of market price of staple food and inadequate risk baring capacity of the people in the case of adverse condition e.
This dimension of food security can be assessed by Global Information Early Warning System, Anthropometric survey, weighing chart of pregnant women etc against certain indicators like food price fluctuation, women etc.
Interventions to address this dimension are saving and loan policy, inter-household food exchange, grain bank, food storage etc. Dimensions of Food Security In summary, Availability covers whether adequate food is ready at people's disposal while Access ensures if all households and individuals have adequate resources to obtain the food they need either through production or purchase.
Similarly utilization is about human body function to adequately ingest, digest and metabolize the food. Stability is about assurance of continuation of fore-mentioned dimensions.
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