List of Allied World War II conferences - Wikipedia
Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin's pivotal meeting in the Iranian capital in late meanwhile, agreed on a preliminary meeting in Cairo, code named Sextant. . the Tehran talks were the last time he was able to confer with FDR and Stalin. Thus the “Sextant” Conference of the Combined Chiefs was a continuation of the series of At both Cairo and Tehran President Roosevelt had conversations with a . is known about the meeting from available sources, unofficial as well as official. . Herbert Feis, Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin: The War They Waged and the. Withdrawal of objection by Churchill to a bilateral Roosevelt-Stalin meeting. 12 Statement of preference for Tehran as a more appropriate conference site than Egypt. 25 . Acceptance of code name “Sextant”. .. Report on conversations with Chiang concerning the forthcoming conferences; Chiang's suspicion of Russian.
There are formal minutes for all meetings of the Combined Chiefs of Staff and for those other international discussions in which the Chiefs of Staff participated.
There are minutes for all substantive discussions with the Russians at Tehran and with the Turks at Cairo. There are no American minutes, however, of several important discussions between Roosevelt and Chiang at Cairo, for which Madame Chiang acted as interpreter. There are references to a considerable number of international discussions at lower levels at all three Conferences, in which Americans participated but for which there are no official American minutes or notes whatever.
In view of the seriousness of these gaps in the American record of these Conferences, the editors felt it necessary to take unusual measures in order to make the record, as presented in this volume, as complete and coherent as possible. Through the friendly interest of Dr. Tong who had been on the Chinese delegation to the Cairo Conference there was obtained a copy in English translation of the Chinese summary of one of the Roosevelt—Chiang discussions at Cairo.
It is printed post, pagewith the permission of the National Government of China. These minutes are published post, pagewith the permission of the British Government. For many of the remaining gaps in the record of these Conferences there will be found editorial notes setting forth what is known about the meeting from available sources, unofficial as well as official.
There were no formal or general meetings of the American delegation at the Cairo or Tehran Conferences.
Cairo Conference - Wikipedia
There were, however, conversations on Conference subjects between President Roosevelt and various members of his party during the Conferences, and in so far as official records of these conversations could be found, they have been included as part of the proceedings. Also included are those portions of the minutes of meetings held by the American Joint Chiefs of Staff at Cairo and Tehran that reflect discussions in which the President or other political leaders participated.
These chapters include not merely those documents that were under international negotiation i. The documents in these sections are arranged chronologically, since there are very few on any one subject.
Other sections in these chapters present the agreed [Page XV] documents produced by each Conference i. Communications regarding these matters between Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin took place by telegrams and via emissaries—but it was evident that direct negotiations were urgently needed. Churchill was an avid traveller and, as part of an ongoing series of wartime conferenceshad already met with Roosevelt five times in North America and twice in Africa and had also held two prior meetings with Stalin in Moscow.
Stalin turned down this offer and also offers to meet in Baghdad or Basra, finally agreeing to meet in Tehran in November Arnold, Chief of the U.
Stalin arrived well before, followed by Roosevelt, brought in his wheelchair from his accommodation adjacent to the venue. This was the first time that they had met.
Churchill, walking with his general staff from their accommodations nearby, arrived half an hour later.
Stalin was accompanied by Vyacheslav Molotov and Kliment Voroshilov. Roosevelt during the Conference The Shah of Iran centerpictured to the right of Joseph Stalin at the Tehran Conference Play media Footage from the Cairo and Tehran conferences As Stalin had been advocating for a second front sincehe was very pleased and felt that he had accomplished his principal goal for the meeting.
Moving on, Stalin agreed to enter the war against Japan once Germany was defeated. In order to compensate Poland for the resulting loss of territory, the three leaders agreed to move the German-Polish border to the Oder and Neisse rivers. This decision was not formally ratified, however, until the Potsdam Conference of Up to this point Churchill had advocated the expansion of joint operations of British, American, and Commonwealth forces in the Mediterranean, as Overlord in was physically impossible due to a lack of shipping, which left the Mediterranean and Italy as viable goals for It was agreed Overlord would occur by May ; Stalin agreed to support it by launching a concurrent major offensive on Germany's eastern front to divert German forces from northern France.
Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin all agreed to support Iran's government, as addressed in the following declaration: The Three Governments realize that the war has caused special economic difficulties for Iran, and they all agreed that they will continue to make available to the Government of Iran such economic assistance as may be possible, having regard to the heavy demands made upon them by their world-wide military operations, and to the world-wide shortage of transport, raw materials, and supplies for civilian consumption.
Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin agreed that it would also be most desirable if Turkey entered on the Allies' side before the year was out. Despite accepting the above arrangements, Stalin dominated the conference. He used the prestige of the Soviet victory at the Battle of Kursk to get his way.
Chapter XVI: Cairo-Tehran - A Goal is Reached: November - December:
Roosevelt attempted to cope with Stalin's onslaught of demands, but was able to do little except appease Stalin. Churchill argued for the invasion of Italy inthen Overlord inon the basis that Overlord was physically impossible in due to lack of shipping and it would be unthinkable to do anything major until it could be launched. Dinner meeting[ edit ] Before the Tripartite Dinner Meeting of 29 November at the Conference, Churchill presented Stalin with a specially commissioned ceremonial sword the " Sword of Stalingrad ", made in Sheffieldas a gift from King George VI to the citizens of Stalingrad and the Soviet people, commemorating the Soviet victory at Stalingrad.
When Stalin received the sheathed sword, he took it with both hands and kissed the scabbard.
He then handed it to Marshal Kliment Voroshilovwho mishandled it, causing the sword to fall to the ground. Roosevelt, believing Stalin was not serious, joked that "maybe 49, would be enough". After much negotiation, and the machinations of an intractable Stalin who did not want to travel to any meeting by air, the conference was set to begin on Nov. Churchill, however, wished to discuss matters with Roosevelt before the meeting with Stalin and suggested that they meet in Cairo for a few days before continuing on to Iran.
Roosevelt was eager for the operation, but Churchill had hoped to persuade Roosevelt to exploit the British and American advantages in the Mediterranean Sea instead. By August, the Allies had captured Sicily and much of southern Italy.
List of papers
Roosevelt agreed that a preliminary meeting was in order but feared how it would look to the Soviets. He did not want to appear to be preparing a united front against Stalin even as he was trying to win the Soviet leader's confidence. This, however, is exactly what Churchill wished to do. Roosevelt said he would attend the meeting if Soviet and Chinese representatives were also allowed to attend, and Churchill agreed, though hoped he could have some alone time with the president and the American staff to press his views.
In Aprilhowever, the Soviets had signed a non-aggression pact with the Japanese, and war between the two nations had never broken out since, either formally or informally.
Stalin feared that a Soviet presence at a conference in which the Chinese coordinated strategy with the United States against the Japanese may threaten the fragile peace between the USSR and Japan and declined to attend.