The Dramatic Life and Death of Atahualpa, the Last Emperor of the Inca Empire | Ancient Origins
Duped into meeting with the conquistadors in a peaceful gathering, an Inca as either trivial or immoral, and failed to reach the annals of Incan civilization. Kids learn about the Timeline of the history of the Inca Empire including the rise of the Inca and AD - The Nazca and Moche civilizations come to an end. The collapse of the Inca Empire started when the Spaniards arrived in It is believed that Atahualpa regarded the meeting as a peaceful gathering where the .
Conquistadors caused Toxic Air Pollution years ago by changing Incan Mining Atahualpa could not have foreseen an even greater threat that arrived just a few months after his triumph in the Inca civil war — conquistador Francisco Pizarro. Although Francisco Pizarro had arrived in Peru in earlyit was only about a year and a half later that he began his march to Cusco.
With 80, men at his command, Atahualpa did not view Pizarro and the Spanish as a threat. Pizarro and his followers in Lima in Wikipedia Atahualpa underestimated his opponent, however, and accepted an invitation from Pizarro to attend a feast at Cajamarca.
Atahualpa also decided to leave his warriors in the mountains and travel to Cajamarca with just 5, unarmed retainers. In the meantime, the Spanish made preparations to trap the unsuspecting Atahualpa. When the Inca ruler arrived at Cajamarca, he was met by Vicente de Valverde, a friar accompanying the conquistadors. Valverde attempted to convert Atahualpa to Christianity, and urged him to accept the Spanish monarch, Charles V, as sovereign. The only injury sustained on the Spanish side was Pizarro himself, who was cut on his hand as he rescued Atahualpa from death and captured him, knowing that the Inca ruler was more valuable alive than dead.
Inca Empire for Kids: Timeline
A living Atahualpa was the only guarantee for the Spanish that the 80, Inca warriors would not come crashing down on them from the mountains. By FebruaryAlmagro had joined Pizarro in Cajamarca with an additional men with 50 horses. By 3 May Pizarro received all the treasure he had requested; it was melted, refined, and made into bars.
False interpretations from the interpreter Felipillo made the Spaniards paranoid. They were told that Atahualpa had ordered secret attacks and his warriors were hidden in the surrounding area. Soto went with a small army to look for the hidden army, but a trial for Atahualpa was held in his absence.
Among the charges were polygamy, incestuous marriage, and idolatry, all frowned upon in Catholicism but common in Inca culture and religion.
- Pizarro Executes Last Inca Emperor
- The Dramatic Life and Death of Atahualpa, the Last Emperor of the Inca Empire
- Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
The men who were against Atahualpa's conviction and murder argued that he should be judged by King Charles since he was the sovereign prince. Atahualpa agreed to accept baptism to avoid being burned at the stake and in the hopes of one day rejoining his army and killing the Spanish; he was baptized as Francisco.
On 29 August Atahualpa was garrotted and died a Christian. He was buried with Christian rites in the church of San Francisco at Cajamarca, but was soon disinterred. His body was taken, probably at his prior request, to its final resting place in Quito.
Upon de Soto's return, he was furious; he had found no evidence of any secret gathering of Atahualpa's warriors. The latter was burned alive in the Jauja Valley, accused of secret communication with Quizquiz, and organizing resistance. Pizarro's force entered the heart of the Tawantinsuyu on 15 November Greedy for gold, Alvarado had set sail for the south without the crown's authorization, landed on the Ecuadorian coast, and marched inland to the Sierra.
Fall of The Inca Civilization
Finding Quito empty of its treasures, Alvarado soon joined the combined Spanish force. Alvarado agreed to sell his fleet of twelve ships, his forces, plus arms and ammunition, and returned to Guatemala.
He began his rule as an ally of the Spanish and was respected in the southern regions of the empire, but there was still much unrest in the north near Quito where Atahualpa's generals were amassing troops.
Atahualpa's death meant that there was no hostage left to deter these northern armies from attacking the invaders. The remains of about 70 men, women, and adolescents were found in the path of a planned expressway near Lima in Forensic evidence suggests that the natives were killed by European weapons, probably during the uprising in However, in he was left in Cuzco under the control of Pizarro's brothers, Juan and Gonzalo, who so mistreated Manco Inca that he ultimately rebelled.
Under the pretense of recovering a statue of pure gold in the nearby Yucay valley, Manco was able to escape Cuzco. The siege of Cuzco was waged until the following spring, and during that time Manco's armies managed to wipe out four relief columns sent from Lima, but was ultimately unsuccessful in its goal of routing the Spaniards from the city.
The Inca leadership did not have the full support of all its subject peoples and furthermore, the degrading state of Inca morale coupled with the superior Spanish siege weapons soon made Manco Inca realize his hope of recapturing Cuzco was failing. Manco Inca eventually withdrew to Tambo. After deadly confrontations, he was murdered by the Spanish in In total, the conquest took about forty years to complete.
Many Inca attempts to regain the empire had occurred, but none had been successful. Thus the Spanish conquest was achieved through relentless force, and deception, aided by factors like smallpox and a great communication and cultural divide. The Spaniards destroyed much of the Incan culture and introduced the Spanish culture to the native population.
Aftermath[ edit ] Pizarro and his followers founding Lima A struggle for power resulted in a long civil war between Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro in which Almagro was killed. Almagro's loyal followers and his descendants later avenged his death by killing Pizarro in This was done inside the palace of Francisco Pizarro in a fight to the death by these assassins, most of which were former soldiers of Diego de Almagro who were stripped of title and belongings after his death.
Spanish royal authority on these territories was consolidated by the creation of an Audiencia Reala type of appellate court. In JanuaryLima was founded, from which the political and administrative institutions were to be organized.
Nevertheless, the Viceroyalty of Peru was not organized until the arrival of a later Viceroy Francisco de Toledo in The integration of Spanish culture into Peru was carried out not only by Pizarro and his other captains, but also by the many Spanish who also came to Peru to exploit its riches and inhabit its land. These included many different kinds of immigrants such as Spanish merchants, peasants, artisans, and Spanish women. Another element that the Spanish brought with them were African slaves to work alongside captive Incas for use in labor with things such as agriculture and mining for silver.
The arrival of the Spanish even had effects on the coastal geography of Peru, since the shores were uninhabited after the Incas that previously lived there were either killed or relocated to another area by the Spanish.
The unique indigenous road and communications systems were essentially lost.
The only things that persisted of the original culture are the very few artifacts that remained and the minute cultural aspects, such as language, that was left behind by the small percentage of Incas who persisted. While this is the case for every group of Native-Americans that encountered Europeans from the fifteenth century onwards, the Incan population suffered a dramatic and quick decline following contact. It is estimated that parts of the empire, notably the Central Andes, suffered a population decline ratio of Old World Eurasian diseases, which had long been endemic on the Continent, were carried unknowingly by colonists and conquistadors.
As these were new to the natives, they had no acquired immunity and suffered very high rates of death. More died of disease than any army or armed conflict. But, it is apparent that the Inca began to contract the diseases several years before the Spanish appeared in the region, as it was likely carried to their empire by traders and travelers. The outbreak, believed to be hemorrhagic smallpoxreached the Andes in While numbers are unavailable, Spanish records indicate that the population was so devastated by disease that they could hardly resist the foreign forces.
Historians differ as to whether the illness of the s was smallpox; a minority of scholars claim that the epidemic was due to an indigenous illness called Carrion's disease. In any case, a study by N. Cook the shows that the Andes suffered from three separate population declines during colonization.
The first was of 30—50 percent during the first outbreak of smallpox. When a measles outbreak occurred, there was another decline of 25—30 percent. Finally, when smallpox and measles epidemics occurred together, which occurred from toa decline of 30—60 percent occurred. Collectively these declines amounted to a decline of 93 percent from the pre-contact population in the Andes region. The Spanish took thousands of women from the local natives to use as servants and concubines.
As Pizarro and his men took over portions of South America, they plundered and enslaved countless people. Some local populations entered into vassalage willingly, to defeat the Inca.
The basic policy of the Spanish towards local populations was that voluntary vassalage would yield safety and coexistence, while continued resistance would result in more deaths and destruction.
As Pizarro and the Spanish subdued the continent and brought it under their control, they forcefully converted many to Christianity, claiming to have educated them in the ways of the "one true religion.
It took just a generation for the entire continent to be under Christian influence. In the play, Pizarro, Atahualpa, Valverde and other historical figures appear as characters. Matthew Reilly 's novel Templeis set at the siege of Cuzco. Many historical figures are mentioned, and a fictional brother of Pizarro is noted to be in pursuit of the protagonist.
The conquest is also used as a "starting point of the cat.
They are also in the Multiplayer, found primarily in the areas making up Chile and Argentina. Quotes[ edit ] I wish Your Majesty to understand the motive that moves me to make this statement is the peace of my conscience and because of the guilt I share. For we have destroyed by our evil behaviour such a government as was enjoyed by these natives.
They were so free of crime and greed, both men and women, that they could leave gold or silver worth a hundred thousand pesos in their open house. So that when they discovered that we were thieves and men who sought to force their wives and daughters to commit sin with them, they despised us.