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A Close Study of the novel The Help by Kathryn.. Art with an How to Analyze a Film . The Correlation between Science and Literature. Tracing ethical aspects of science, technology, and literature calls for . Lang's work encouraged others to analyze techniques employed in classical poetry, Illich criticized the reversal of the relation of needs and wants by materialist culture. The accumulated body of scientific and technical writing published to serve the of information technology; Documenting progress; Links to Primary Literature.
In questions of less personal importance, especially in matters relating to the inanimate and the external, logic and reason may be applied in unadulterated forms. What is not always recognized is that the same subject may be approached from two - perhaps even more - different perspectives. The waltz may be reduced to periodic patterns arising from a complex configuration of forces and reactions.
A Mozart sonata may be Fourier analyzed, and a smile on a babe's face may be looked upon in terms of nerve impulses and muscular contractions. But such points of view, if taken too seriously or adopted uniquely, have a tendency to diminish our aesthetic sensibilities. And this is not all.
The scientific interpretation of nature, with its avowed obsession for coherence and consistency, is concerned primarily with relations. No scientific truth stands by itself, as no event in the physical world occurs all by itself. Hence the order that science reveals is one of mutual balance, of reciprocal support, of cosmic harmony. Once the order is discerned, the puzzle solved, and the mechanism exposed, there is little beyond.
Meaning and value have no place here. Literature on the other and, as indeed most other arts, attempt to see things not simply as they are, but as they are with respect to man.
Literature is interested not so much in how the world functions, as in how that functioning affects man. It aims to go beyond the recognition of facts and phenomena and into the domain of the way and the wherefore. Questions of meaning and purpose, of values and wisdom, do not belong simply to philosophy. In their more immediate forms they provoke the poet and the novelist into thought and writing.
It is sometimes asked if such questions have any significance at all. More exactly, do they have answers? It would seem that they have not one, but a hundred and more answers. And each creative writer offers his own. The fascination for literature lies, not in the questions posed - for these can be summarized in a sender tome - but in the variety of contexts in which they appear, in the richness of the answers they suggest.
Science, scientists and literature
This is not a case where a puzzle is there to baffle a human mind, where a puzzle once solved leads you on to the next, as in science. Rather here it is the variable vision that enriches the field. The very non-uniqueness of the solution renders literature limitless in scope and lush expressions. Hence also the individuality of the answer, the stamp of the artist in his work: But at the epistemological level the question can still be asked as to whether and how far the scientific interpretation of the world of experience is complete and wholesome; whether indeed it can, as its more ardent disciples have sometimes claimed, bring within its sweep sooner or later every facet of man's perceptions from fleeting elementary particles to receding galaxies, and not excluding such unphysical manifestations of the human psyche as love and hate, justice and honor.
Scientifically chiseled fields ranging from psychology to anthropology, let alone neurology and endocrinology, have tirelessly - and not without success - probed into the very foundations of human values, motives, moods and emotions, snatching away, as it were, from the literary artist's hold the clay of his craft.
But the plundering is only superficially dangerous. All that the scientist does is to reveal the structure of the clay, its primordial properties and recesses. This knowledge could only contribute positively to the work of the creative writer. Indeed the influence of Freud on 20th century literature bears ample testimony to this. Who knows, the glandular basis of our moods, the neurological facets of pleasure and pain, as well as the genetic components of our behavior, may all well be incorporated some day in the characterization of a hero in a future novel.
But even without all this, literature can flourish on the intuitive and imaginative genius of great writers. After all, long before Freud and Jung, Shakespeare had portrayed the subtle relationships between mother and son, and centuries before the Sophocles had revealed other neurotic links.
The artist's into human nature often penetrates deeper than the carefully controlled gadgets of experimental science. More importantly, his revelations transcend the purely physicochemical components of human existence which, let us admit, are not to be disposed of lightly or discarded contemptuously; but which may nonetheless not be the perspective of the whole truth.
There is yet another factor which contributes sometimes to the negative outlook that artists and literary men have towards science.
Science and Literature during the Victorian Age
This is related to the origin and destiny of man as revealed by the sciences. Not only did the Copernican insight kick man off the glorious center of the universe and render his splendid abode a mere insignificant speck in a vast universe; but developments in geology gave the lie to a poetic picture of an artistic creation as portrayed in holy books.
Evolutionary biology traced back man to arboreal antics, and in all this spark of a divine soul seemed to be transformed into mere protoplasmic functions. The magnificent story of a God molding man with love and joy is replaced by science by one that is far less satisfying to out emotional instincts.
Science would have us believe that in the remote infancy of our planet, over three billion years ago, there were lands barren and waste, atmosphere was hydrogen, ammonia, methane and other gases. Gigantic clouds and torrential rains rose and fell, seeping salts from land to sea.
In the mammoth laboratories of the planet's oceans and airs, kindled by heat and lightning, by radiation's from the sun, and by heaven knows what other excitant, the turbulent chemistry of the early molecules churned out the first organic structures.
Carbohydrates and fats were thus concocted. These increased in complexity as further reactions took place, and the waters of the period constituted what has been called a primordial soup in which mutual reactions resulted in molecules of ever increasing wonder and size. Energy trapping processes came into play. After a myriad permutations and patterns mysterious entities with the property of self-replication emerged.
These grew in number and variety, until at last the nucleic acids and proteins were formed. The miracle of life had begun. Once the spark of life was lit incredible throbbings ensued. The self-replicating systems grew in numbers, and as they multiplied new complexities arose.
An end product of it all is Man and his civilization. With all its technical erudition this version falls short of the simpler and more beautiful story of an almighty God shaping humans in His image. Even if one grants physicochemical forces as determining factors in the origins of life, our destinies as suggested by thermodynamics and astrophysics seem to be even more distasteful.
The second law of thermodynamics predicts an eventual heat death for the entire universe, a grotesque climax for all our hopes and ambitions. And long before that, astrophysicists coldly inform us, our sun would have frittered away its nuclear potentialities, perpetrating blindly mass extinction of vital processes on our planet. And if we are to believe this awesome projection, our planet will in a distant but certain future continue to swirl around a silent sun much as the many meaningless rocks that go by the name of lifeless planets and asteroids.
Elliptic orbits and gravitation there will still be, but no human mind to calculate or to comprehend. If this is the sort of dismal tale that science, if this is the ruthless terror that it can wrought on our spirits, is there any wonder that those who touch the heart and soul of man, those who ponder his plights and predicaments, pleasures and pains, in short, the artists and the poets, find science reprehensible and revolting? I believe it is in the ultimate meaninglessness of it all which is implicit in the sciences that unveil conditions in primordial times and in ages to come, in the sciences that mercilessly tell of silent eons and lifeless repetitions that the cause of the antagonism between the arts and the sciences is to be found; not in the mutual incomprehension of the artist and the scientist.
Finally, let us consider the role of the imagination in literature and in science. Shakespeare had stated that role in poetry: The poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling, Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven; And as imagination bodies forth The forms unknown, the poet's pen Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing a local habitation and a name.
The value of imagination in the scientific pursuit is no less. The view of the scientist as a helpless groper chained to the crass world of tangible reality is a very misleading one. When John Tyndal called imagination the architect of physical theories, and when Max Born noted that faith, imagination and intuition were all decisive factors in the progress of science, they were not referring to literary imagery. The mutual influence of these two ways of thinking shows that they are equally human and have constantly influenced each other, and even more so today.
In this article we discuss countless examples of novels and stories influenced by new scientific ideas, and also some cases where literary creativity has coined some highly original scientific vocabulary.
However, as this article will show, the important interactions between science and the cultural sphere with architecture, religion, the philosophy of the Enlightenment, or literature throughout history demonstrate that science is a fundamental component of culture Solbes, Given that we now understand science to be a form of thinking and formal reasoning which originated in the Renaissance, we will show the relationship between science and literature during that period, before looking at contemporary science, a time when this relationship has had more significant effects.
This means that science is present in literature, in the form of topics, characters, and even authors, which as we will see, allows literature to be used as a means to spread knowledge about science and its social context.
The fact that mathematics and other sciences were crowning glories of the Enlightenment can be seen in the literature of that period. In this regard, Swift was able to foresee science being a natural ally to power, used to dominate humans and nature. Goethe tried to contribute to scientific knowledge. Aside from his natural philosophy he wrote an erroneous theory about colour and made interesting contributions to the areas of plant and human morphology. In Elective AffinitiesGoethe bases his writing around the idea that the human passion between the protagonists cannot be explained with rational foresight, just like chemical bonds and separations, as was believed at the time.
From his vitalist perspective, Goethe opposes chemical activity against that of the kingdom of mechanical laws. Even Dickens, despite the fact that the industrial revolution began in England, only deals with the issue in Hard Timeswhich is set in an industrial city. In all of his works, Dickens is very critical of employers, bankers, politicians and judges, who are perfectly aware of the awful living conditions of workers and other deprived people, but he thinks the problem should be resolved through the charity of those in power and not through the union of the oppressed.
Literature of science and technology - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill Education
It would not be until some years later, when Zola wrote Germinalthat industrialism and workers were given a starring role. The novel describes the physical and moral misery of miners, the hard working conditions in a mine, and the different viewpoints within the workers movement socialists, anarchistsa strike and the consequent bloody repression.What is the relationship between science and technology
If industrialism took so long to appear in literature, one might suppose that science, a more minor social reality, would have less impact on literature.
This is not the case. Soon, authors would emerge who depicted chemists, inventors and engineers. As a result, the book was banned by the German authorities. Also, the scientist, a hero in his previous works, becomes a perverse or crazy anti-hero, a blind instrument of power, a fact that would have a large influence on subsequent literature and cinema. Wells, who studied at the University of London alongside Thomas Huxley, and taught from tois considered along with Verne as a pioneer of science fiction literature, with the novels The Time MachineThe Island of Dr MoreauThe Invisible Man and The War of the Worldswhich have all been made into films.
In this novel scientific progress, related to the generation of life, is cast as a monster that turns against its creator. Oil on board, 61 x In the work, scientific progress linked to the creation of life, is a monster that turns against its creator. Science also influences the work of Arthur Conan Doyle. The investigation methods used by his literary creation, the detective Sherlock Holmes, are based on the positivist scientific methods taught to the author as a medical student.
Then I have to bustle about and see things with my own eyes. Set at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the novels recount the expeditions of the HMS Surprise, commanded by Captain Jack Aubrey, accompanied by the doctor, naturalist, and spy Stephen Maturin.
These characters evoke the work carried out by scientists such as Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace, or Jorge Juan, who combined his geographical projects with secret diplomatic missions. Science and literature in the twentieth century We will now show how there has been a growth in interaction between science and culture in the twentieth century. His celebrated statement "The medium is the message" from Understanding Media published indescribed technological consequences as continuous: He recognized differences among media, distinguishing cool and hot media as media requiring engagement telephone or passivity radio on the part of the user.
He described the inevitable constraints associated with technological progress; for example, that the alphabet can "alter the ratio among our senses and change mental processes" as "an aggressive and militant absorber and transformer of cultures" McLuhanpp.
Digital Literacy Many language and technology theorists have developed McLuhan's insights, extending them to other technical developments and evaluating their applicability to revisionist histories of literacy and cognition. Adopting some of McLuhan's ideas about the power of media to influence human perceptions in Orality and LiteracyWalter Ong characterizes writing as a technology that changes human consciousness. Investigations in cognition formed the basis for the development of electronic communication media.
Dick to ideas of distributed consciousness and thereby offers a history of disembodiment in cybernetics. Brian Massumi reviews philosophies of perception, including those of Henri BergsonWilliam JamesGilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari, and Michel Foucaultto argue that new ways of reading are necessary to understand the body and media film, television, and the Internet as cultural formations.
Janet Murray argues that late-twentieth-century forms of media changed storytelling conventions to require interactivity. She acknowledges earlier narrative forms and strategies that provide precedents and points of comparison for such media, especially the epic, the picaresque, and the drama of Shakespeare, forcefully arguing that movies, computer games, and hypertext novels are new narrative forms requiring new ways of appreciating a story.
Hypertext fiction, poetics, and history, and new media criticism by Michael Joyce, Stuart Moulthrop, George Landow, and Jay Bolter also proffer the argument that hypertextual narrative forms revise notions of interactivity and change perception in representing reality in new, perhaps dangerous, ways. In their joint work, Bolter and Richard Grusin detail changes in Internet media reflecting the remediation of different media forms and their effects on users, particularly in the way that the Internet has become another, albeit more interactive coolmedium.
Greg Ulmer considers electronic communication in teaching composition in universities, arguing that students accustomed to interactive technologies benefit from a constructivist rather than instrumentalist approach. Authorship, Technology, and Ethics in the Information Age Post-structuralists theorists Roland BarthesDerrida, and Foucault questioned traditional notions of authorship.
Their critiques suggest that it is impossible for anyone, even another author, to divine a writer's intentions and that readers provide intertextual and contextual information that expands the text.
Barthes acknowledges in "The Death of the Author," which first appeared inthat the plurality of voices in the text inevitably produce many possible meanings for readers. Foucault also questioned to what extent biographical information should affect consideration of an author's literary output in "What Is an Author?
The Internet complicates ideas of authorship. Each search produces a list of sites that could be one person's work, that of a group, or the official page of a company or institution, while many web pages have no identified authors.
Contributors to an electronic forum collaborate as multiple authors to a boundless text. In this way, electronic writing further reduces the distance between reader and text a shift previously noted by Walter Benjaminand increases the ephemerality of a text.
The fixity of the printed text has transformed into the fluidity of electronic content. Scholars present electronic archives of canonical writers such as Emily DickinsonHerman Melvilleand Walt Whitman that incorporate all versions of particular texts, while hyperlinks organize text to present fluid documents with multiple reading pathways. Electronic sites also recuperate once-popular writers whose works appear on the Internet along with those never-before-published.
Although Internet communication enhances many aspects of social life, its boundlessness also creates ethical problems. Free speech advocates resist filtering information. Satisfactory technical solutions preventing electronic mail spam, plagiarism, identity theftand pornography aimed at juveniles have not yet been developed.
Free electronic distribution of music and film appeals to many users but chips away at intellectual property rights, as is argued by artists and producers in the recording and film industries.
Ethical standards regarding authorship, as cases of plagiarism and false documentation of sources suggest, call into question the name on the book or the claims within it, but generally the production process appears to be opaque to a reader, who could easily assume, for instance, that a biography was researched and written by the author noted on the cover or that a reporter whose byline appears on an article witnessed an event, while there may in fact have been contributions from numerous research assistants or virtual research may have substituted for an on the scene account.
Critical Paradigms of Taste and Technology Literary criticism has a long history of valuing some genres, writers, or works over others for ethical reasons.
Plato characterized poetry as too dangerous to exist in the ideal republic because it inspired political critique, and Jonathan Swift satirized the seventeenth-century Battle of the Ancients and the Moderns that provoked many French and English critics to debate the merits of classical versus contemporary literature. Training in modern languages and literatures is a product of the post-Romantic age. Earlier education in liberal arts was dominated by study of classical texts; but by the early-twentieth century, ideas of canonicity transformed to include certain modern texts.
Cultural tastes change over time; for example, the novels of Herman Melville gained popular attention in the late s and s, but his critical reputation then diminished before critics in the s rediscovered his work. In the late-twentieth century the literary canon of Great Books expanded to include works from non-European or North American cultures and by women and minorities.
Thus, while the high versus popular culture distinction has had particular resiliency, it has been applied to shifting sets of literary works. The effects of technology on standards of literary taste have primarily concerned issues of reproduction associated with electronic media. In "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction"Benjamin argues that advances in printing changed the status of art in making woodcut graphics reproducible in lithography, thereby enabling "graphic art to illustrate everyday life" Benjaminp.
Benjamin notes the inverse relation of accessibility and quality of works of art that accounts for the popularity of a Chaplin film versus "the reactionary attitude toward a Picasso painting" p.
His essay ends by suggesting the dangerous capacities of film to support totalitarianism. Frederick Kittler also analyzes how the functions of literature depend upon contextual shifts of discourse systems and on changing technical capacities of media.
Like Foucault, he organizes history into eras based on paradigms of how literature is read in relation to other discourses, and, like Benjamin, he is concerned about determining effects of technology on literature.
Saul Ostrow references McLuhan's idea that technology extends the human body in remarking that "Kittler is not stimulated by the notion that we are becoming cyborgs, but instead by the subtler issues of how we conceptually become reflections of our information systems" Kittlerp. In an essay considering Bram Stoker 's Draculaas a commentary on the reproducibility of technology, Kittler notes that communication systems determine modern interpretations and forecast the death of literature: Building on elements of Jacques LacanFoucault, and Derrida, Kittler theorizes about the discourse networks of and He identifies the classical romantic discourse network of according to its fundamental formulation of mothers socializing children through phonetic reading universal alphabetization and that of the modernist discourse network of by the influence of technologies such as the typewriter on writing and reading technological data storage.
Kittler recalibrates literary works and theories by representing them as media: He argues that a transformed literary criticism ought to understand literature as an information network, thereby classifying literary study as a type of media studies. In representing literature as technology, Kittler's theories encourage literary criticism that connects works of art to scientific practices and theories.
Futurism Agreeing with progressive thinkers who argued the benefits of modern technology, the early-twentieth-century Futurism movement recognized literature to be a form of imaginative anticipation of and stimulation toward scientific and technological change. Futurists reacted against Romantic conceptions of literature as a sentimental retreat from technology.
In a manifesto, Italian futurists such as Filippo Tommaso Marinetti proposed that products of the machine age might be celebrated alongside nature: Marinetti excelled in performing manifestoes, designed to incite the crowd, at Futurist evenings; his arguments characterized "man as the conqueror of the universe, destined to impose change with the aid of science" Tisdall and Bozzollap. Futurist painters concentrated on depicting dynamic forces, especially those of urban life. Photographers and filmmakers applied principles of Photodynamism to integrate light and line into action.
Futurism encouraged poets, dramatists, and other writers to describe the life of matter without imposing versions of Romantic or pantheistic ego on material conditions. Composers, architects, and activists were similarly drawn to the utopian promise of futurism.
Antonio Gramscico-founder of the Italian Communist party, expressed sympathy for the Futurist attempts to destroy the foundations of bourgeois civilization because "they had a precise and clear conception that our era, the era of big industry, of the great workers' cities, of intense and tumultuous life, had to have new forms of art, philosophy, customs, language In contrast, in "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction," Benjamin pointed to how such radicalism, encouraged by technological change and promoting self-alienation, aestheticized destruction and contributed to Fascism.
Literature, Science, Technology, and Culture Matthew Arnold in "Literature and Science" outlined a distinction between the disciplines later represented by C. Snow as the two cultures in his Rede lecture. Literary and cultural critics in the late-twentieth century changed the terms of such classification schemes in interpreting a range of texts—written, dramatized, ritualized, and so on—as cultural products.
Clifford Geertz, Raymond Williams, and Victor Turner contributed fundamental concepts supporting the linguistic, or narrative, turn in anthropology and cultural studies.
Geertz and Turner unpacked social events as cultural texts affecting individuals as community rituals, while Williams looked at the symbolism of ordinary life that had previously been excluded from scholarly consideration. Sociologists Bruno Latour and Sharon Traweek examined laboratory life and scientists's networks and discourse.
Their work, along with that of Stuart Hall and Frederic Jameson, among other cultural critics, effaced previously set boundaries dividing high and low culture, linked art and life, and blurred disciplinary divisions concerning methodologies.
Like writers and artists, scientists and technologists are subject to cultural ideologies and conditions, and they produce literature as well as a body of knowledge. Cultural critics understand literature and science as discursive, epistemological practices with reciprocal influence. Tracing the representations of scientists and scientific ideas in literature can be a critical step in confronting scientific theories and practices because literary genres entertain and educate.
Scientific hypotheses and inventions in fictions and ethical issues represented in literature inspire scientists. Given the increasing imbrication of science and technology in everyday life, it is not surprising that many literary and artistic works weave such references into their discourse and offer some ethical commentary on their development and implementation. Just as science and technology are constructed out of and influence social values, literary works reflect and refract cultural ideas and events, as Maurice Agulhon noted of the Rougon-Macquart novels by Emile Zola and their Darwinian intertexts.
But the forms of engagement are not formulaic, with writers using literature to offer ethical arguments about science and technology. Romantic works privilege nature over technology, yet they inspire the individual to become a close observer of the natural world and thereby give some impetus to scientific study.
Nineteenth-century campaigns against hunting for leisure and fashion and anti-vivisection movements, along with an appreciation for species developed post-Darwin and support for women's suffrage, inspired British women to write about nature Gates