NC State | WWW4 Service End of Life
Apr 29, There are many reasons Native Americans and European Colonists did not have a good relationship. The reason for conflict between Colonist. Oct 18, Relations between Pennsylvania's Native American and European rift to open between Philadelphia's Quaker community and colonists living. To the European mind, the natives were sub fiends in the service of the devil . further notorious clash between Native Americans and settlers in the colonial.
They did not try to change it. They might grow crops in an area for a few years. Then they would move on. They would allow the land on which they had farmed to become wild again. They might hunt on one area of land for some time, but again they would move on.
They hunted only what they could eat, so populations of animals could continue to increase. The Indians understood nature and were at peace with it. The first Europeans to settle in the New England area of the Northeast wanted land.
The Indians did not fear them. There were not many settlers and there was enough land for everyone to use and plant crops. It was easy to live together. The Indians helped the settlers by teaching them how to plant crops and survive on the land. But the Indians did not understand that the settlers were going to keep the land. This idea was foreign to the Indians. To them, it was like trying to own the air, or the clouds. As the years passed, more and more settlers arrived, and took more and more land.
They cut down trees. They built fences to keep people and animals out. They demanded that the Indians stay off their land. Another problem between the settlers and the Indians involved religion. The settlers in New England thought Christianity was the one true faith, and that all people should believe in it. They soon learned that the Indians were satisfied with their own spiritual beliefs and were not interested in changing them.
As a result, many settlers came to believe that the Native Americans could not be trusted because they were not Christians. They began to fear the Indians and think of them as evil. The European settlers failed to understand that the Indians were an extremely spiritual people with a strong belief in unseen powers.
The Indians lived very close to nature. They believed that all things in the universe depend on each other. All native tribes had ceremonies that honored a creator of nature. They recognized the creator's work in their everyday lives.
Other events also led to serious problems between the Native Americans and the newcomers.
One problem was disease. For example, some of the settlers carried the bacteria that caused smallpox, although they themselves did not get sick.
Smallpox had caused deadly epidemics in Europe, but it was unknown to the Indians.
American History: A New World Clash of Cultures
Their immune systems had developed no protection against the disease. It killed whole tribes. And smallpox was only one disease brought from Europe.
There were others that also infected the Indians. The first meetings between settlers and Native Americans would follow the same course in almost every European settlement along the East Coast.
The two groups would meet as friends. They would begin by trading for food and other goods. In time, however, something would happen to cause a crisis. Perhaps a settler would demand that an Indian stay off the settler's land. Perhaps someone was killed.
Fear would replace friendship. One side or the other would react to what they believed was an attack. A good example of this was the conflict known as King Philip's War. Metacom, also known as Metacomet, was a leader of the Wampanoag tribe. He was the son of Chief Massasoit.
Without the help of Massasoit and his tribe, the first European settlers in the northernmost colonies might not have survived their first winter. The Wampanoag Indians provided them with food.
They taught the settlers how to plant corn and other crops. The two groups were very friendly for several years.
- Colonial-Indian Relations
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Massasoit and his court attended the first harvest feast, which became known as Thanksgiving. As the years passed, however, fear and mistrust replaced friendliness. Metacom 's brother died of a European disease. Metacom, who was known to the English as King Philip, blamed the colonists. He also saw how the increasing numbers of settlers were changing the land.
He believed they were destroying it. One small crisis after another finally led to the killing of a Christian Indian who lived with the settlers. Treaties As part of their negotiations, the British secured three treaties which opened the western Virginia frontier to European settlement: At Lancaster, Virginia negotiators convinced the Six Nations to surrender their land to the "setting sun," which the Confederacy interpreted as the crest of the Alleghenies and the British interpreted as all of western Virginia.
Indians fought among themselves over hunting rights to the territory but the Native American idea of "right" to the land was very different from the legalistic and individual nature of European ownership.
John Alexander Williams describes this in his book, West Virginia: A History for Beginners: The Indians had no concept of "private property," as applied to the land. Only among the Delawares was it customary for families, during certain times of the year, to be assigned specific hunting territories.
American Indians at European Contact
Apparently this was an unusual practice, not found among other Indians. Certainly, the idea of an individual having exclusive use of a particular piece of land was completely strange to Native Americans. The Indians practiced communal land ownership. That is, the entire community owned the land upon which it lived. English troops under a young commander, George Washington, were overwhelmed by the French at Fort Necessity, beginning a lengthy war for control of the American colonies.
While the English had made it clear they intended to settle the frontier, the French were more interested in trade. This influenced the Delaware and Shawnee to side with the French.
American History: A New World Clash of Cultures
Although the Six Nations officially remained neutral, many in the Iroquois Confederacy also allied with the French. The following year, French troops lost Quebec, crippling their military strength.
The loss of French military support temporarily calmed tensions between Native Americans and settlers in western Virginia. In the summer ofPontiac, an Ottawa chief led raids on key British forts. Shawnee chief Keigh-tugh-qua, or Cornstalk, led similar attacks on western Virginia settlements in present-day Greenbrier County. However, many land speculators such as George Washington violated the proclamation by claiming vast acreage in western Virginia.
The next five years were relatively peaceful on the frontier. With the frontier again open, settlers flooded into western Virginia and the speculators made small fortunes in rent on the lands they had acquired.
Battle of Point Pleasant The Shawnee had never given up their claims to western Virginia and interpreted the rapid settlement as acts of aggression. Hostilities reached a climax in when land speculator Michael Cresap led a group of volunteers from Fort Fincastle later renamed Fort Henry at present-day Wheeling and raided Shawnee towns in what became known as Cresap's War.
One of the worst atrocities of the conflict was the murder of several family members of Mingo chief Tah-gah-jute, who had been baptized under the English name Logan. Logan, who had previously lived peacefully with the settlers, killed at least 13 western Virginians that summer in revenge. Dunmore drew up a plan to trap the Shawnee between two armies. The governor personally led the northern army while land speculator Andrew Lewis led a smaller force from the south.
But Shawnee leader Cornstalk struck the southern regiment before it united with Dunmore's troops. On October 10,Cornstalk's force of approximately 1, men attacked Lewis at the confluence of the Kanawha and Ohio rivers at present-day Point Pleasant. After the battle, which resulted in significant losses on both sides, the Shawnee retreated to protect their settlements in the Scioto Valley in present-day Ohio.
The Battle of Point Pleasant eliminated Native Americans as a force on the frontier for the first three years of the American Revolutionary War, which began in Aprilclearing the way for peaceful settlement of the region. When the Revolutionary War began, many American soldiers who had previously served in the British army fought for the Continental Army. Native Americans remained generally neutral for the first two years of the war.