Culture, Ethics, and Communication - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication
Abstract: Cultural diversity manifests in all relationships, including research Ethical conduct is a component of any human interaction, and the need for it be singly defined because each group has its own conception of ethics, based on its . All ACA members are required to abide by the ACA Code of Ethics, and 21 (the ethics code is also available online at promovare-site.info). we infused multiculturalism and diversity throughout the entire code of ethics. and the idea of confidentiality has a very different meaning in their culture. therefore every human interaction is a cultural one. Ethical principles are intended to guide our professional relationships with other Formal codes of ethics do not define multicultural competencies, such as the knowledge (what), skills.
The growing population of diverse individuals in the United States will put more pressure on counselors to be culturally competent in their service of delivery. Younger generations illustrate this diversity. Pew Research indicates that 43 percent of adult millennials are non-white.
Some clients are affected by their religion through transcendental experiences that extend beyond the ordinary. Others may identify with no religion at all. This type of maturity involves the ability of an individual to respond to a situation or their environment in an appropriate manner based upon their psychological strengths and needs.
Physical, cognition, and psychological skill development affects how an individual experiences challenges at different points in life. Stressful situations can put individuals at risk for psychological dangers when the ability to cope with them become ineffective.
Family History and Dynamics: The modern family is now one with much more diversification, less rigidity, and broadened horizons. People who possess unique physical characteristics may experience stress of dissatisfaction. It is on part of the counselor to reflect on the internalized negative views of stereotypes. Manuel Casas, Lisa A. Informed consent in Africa.
New England Journal of Medicine, Existing international ethical guidelines for human subject research: Law of Medical Healthcare, 19, Fundamentalism, multiculturalism, and problems conducting research with populations in developing nations. Nursing Ethics, 8 5 An investigation of the impact of psychological research on a Native population. Research and Practice, 24, Educational Action Research, 3, Participatory action research in Native communities: Cultural opportunities and legal implications.
The Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 13 1 Implementing culturally appropriate research projects in First Nations communities.
American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 25 2 A parents' survey of problems faced by mentally ill daughters. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 38, The Declaration of Helsinki and research in vulnerable populations. Medical Journal of Australia, The role of connecting in First Nations healing practices.
Canadian Journal of Counselling, 31 3 Division 35 APA Newsletter, Career counselling with Native clients: Free and informed consent in research involving Native American communities. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 25 1 Protecting research subjects -- what must be done.
How are we to live? Ethics in an age of self-interest.
She finds that Canada's multiculturalism policies, which provide immigrants with a variety of services in their native languages and encourage them to preserve their cultural traditions even as they become Canadian citizens, are the main reason why the naturalization rate among permanent residents in Canada is twice that of permanent residents in the U. Both are important dimensions in the pursuit of equality for minority groups.
In practice, both redistribution and recognition—responding to material disadvantages and marginalized identities and statuses—are required to achieve greater equality across lines of race, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexuality, and class, not least because many individuals stand at the intersection of these different categories and suffer multiple forms of marginalization.
A politics of recognition is important not only on account of its effects on socioeconomic status and political participation but also for the sake of full inclusion of members of marginalized groups as equal citizens. Brian Barry defends a universalist ideal of equality, in contrast to the group-differentiated ideal of equality defended by Kymlicka. Barry argues that religious and cultural minorities should be held responsible for bearing the consequences of their own beliefs and practices, just as members of the dominant culture are held responsible for bearing the consequences of their beliefs.
He does think that special accommodations are owed to people with disabilities, but he believes religious and cultural affiliations are different from physical disabilities: A physical disability supports a strong prima facie claim to compensation because it limits a person's opportunities to engage in activities that others are able to engage in. In contrast, religion and culture may shape one's willingness to seize an opportunity, but they do not affect whether one has an opportunity.
Barry argues that egalitarian justice is only concerned with ensuring a reasonable range of equal opportunities, not with ensuring equal access to any particular choices or outcomes When it comes to cultural and religious affiliations, they do not limit the range of opportunities one enjoys but rather the choices one can make within the set of opportunities available to all.
In reply, one might agree that opportunities are not objective in the strong physicalist sense suggested by Barry. But the opportunity to do X is not just having the possibility to do X without facing physical encumbrances; it is also the possibility of doing X without incurring excessive costs or the risk of such costs Miller State law and cultural commitments can conflict in ways such that the costs for cultural minorities of taking advantage of the opportunity are prohibitively high.
In contrast to Barry, liberal multiculturalists argue that many cases where a law or policy disparately impacts a religious or cultural practice constitute injustice.
For instance, Kymlicka points to the Goldman case discussed above and other religion cases, as well as to claims for language rights, as examples in which group-differentiated rights are required in light of the differential impact of state action— His argument is that since the state cannot achieve complete disestablishment of culture or be neutral with respect to culture, it must somehow make it up to citizens who are bearers of minority religious beliefs and native speakers of other languages.
Because complete state disestablishment of culture is not possible, one way to ensure fair background conditions is to provide roughly comparable forms of assistance or recognition to each of the various languages and religions of citizens.
To do nothing would be to permit injustice. There are several elements to Coulthard's critique. First, he argues that the politics of recognition, through its focus on reformist state redistributionist schemes like granting cultural rights and concessions to aboriginal communities, affirms rather than challenges the political economy of colonialism.
Second, the contemporary politics of recognition toward indigenous communities rests on a flawed sociological assumption: Yet, no such mutual dependency exists in actual relations between nation-states and indigenous communities: He employs Frantz Fanon to argue that the road to true self-determination for the oppressed lies in self-affirmation: Taylor, Kymlicka, and other proponents of the contemporary politics of recognition might agree with Coulthard that self-affirmation by oppressed groups is critical for true self-determination and freedom of indigenous communities, but such self-affirmation need not be viewed as mutually exclusive from state efforts to extend institutional accommodations.
State recognition of self-government rights and other forms of accommodation are important steps toward rectifying historical injustices and transforming structural inequalities between the state and indigenous communities. Multicultural theorists have tended to focus on inequalities between groups in arguing for special protections for minority groups, but group-based protections can exacerbate inequalities within minority groups.
This is because some ways of protecting minority groups from oppression by the majority may make it more likely that more powerful members of those groups are able to undermine the basic liberties and opportunities of vulnerable members.
Vulnerable subgroups within minority groups include religious dissenters, sexual minorities, women, and children.
What is Cultural Diversity?
A group's leaders may exaggerate the degree of consensus and solidarity within their group to present a united front to the wider society and strengthen their case for accommodation.
Some of the most oppressive group norms and practices revolve around issues of gender and sexuality, and it is feminist critics who first called attention to potential tensions between multiculturalism and feminism ColemanOkinShachar These tensions constitute a genuine dilemma if one accepts both that group-differentiated rights for minority cultural groups are justifiable, as multicultural theorists do, and that gender equality is an important value, as feminists have emphasized.
Extending special protections and accommodations to minority groups engaged in patriarchal practices may help reinforce gender inequality within these communities. These feminist objections are especially troublesome for liberal egalitarian defenders of multiculturalism who wish to promote not only inter-group equality but also intra-group equality, including gender equality. In response, Kymlicka has emphasized the similarities between multiculturalism and feminism: To address the concern about multicultural accommodations exacerbating intra-group inequality, Kymlicka distinguishes between two kinds of group rights: He argues that a liberal theory of minority group rights defends external protections while rejecting internal restrictions35—44;, But many feminist critics have emphasized, granting external protections to minority groups may sometimes come at the price of internal restrictions.
They may be different sides of the same coin: Whether multiculturalism and feminism can be reconciled within liberal theory depends in part on the empirical premise that groups that seek group-differentiated rights do not support patriarchal norms and practices. If they do, liberal multiculturalists would in principle have to argue against extending the group right or extending it with certain qualifications, such as conditioning the extension of self-government rights to Native peoples on the acceptance of a constitutional bill of rights.
There has been a wave of feminist responses to the problem of vulnerable internal minorities that is sympathetic to both multiculturalism and feminism see, e.
Some have emphasized the importance of moving away from essentialist notions of culture and reductive views of members of minority groups as incapable of meaningful agency PhillipsVolpp Others have sought to move from the emphasis on rights in liberal multiculturalism towards more democratic approaches. Liberal theorists have tended to start from the question of whether and how minority cultural practices should be tolerated or accommodated in accordance with liberal principles, whereas democratic theorists foreground the role of democratic deliberation and ask how affected parties understand the contested practice.
By drawing on the voices of affected parties and giving special weight to the voice of women at the center of gendered cultural conflicts, deliberation can clarify the interests at stake and enhance the legitimacy of responses to cultural conflicts BenhabibDeveauxSong Deliberation also provides opportunities for minority group members to expose instances of cross-cultural hypocrisy and to consider whether and how the norms and institutions of the larger society, whose own struggles for gender equality are incomplete and ongoing, may reinforce rather than challenge sexist practices within minority groups Song There is contestation over what constitutes subordination and how best to address it, and intervention into minority cultural groups without the participation of minority women themselves fails to respect their freedom and is not likely to serve their interests.
Political retreat from multiculturalism? The biggest challenge to multiculturalism may not be philosophical but political: But other scholars argue there is lack of evidence of any such retreat.
Based on their analysis of British policies, Varun Uberoi and Tariq Modood find that legal exemptions for minority religious practices, anti-discrimination measures, and multicultural education policies remain in place, and there is no country-wide evidence suggesting that public services are no longer delivered in different languages Further research is needed on whether and why there has been a retreat from multiculturalism policies.
Consider then-Prime Minister David Cameron's speech: According to Cameron, multiculturalism stands for separation and division, not integration and unity. But the survey of different theories of multiculturalism above demonstrates that most theories of immigrant multiculturalism do not aim at separation but rather devising fairer terms of inclusion for religious and cultural minorities into mainstream society Kymlicka Public debate about immigrant multiculturalism should be pursued in a broader context that considers the politics of immigration, race, religion, and national security.
Multiculturalism may become an easy rhetorical scapegoat for public fear and anxiety when national security is threatened and when economic conditions are bad. In Europe, concerns about the radicalization of Muslim minorities have become central to public debates about immigration and multiculturalism.
Culture, Ethics, and Communication - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication
This is especially true in the face of the European migration crisis as over a million people fleeing war and violence in Syria, Iraq, and elsewhere have made perilous journeys by sea and land into Europe.
The migration crisis has tapped into fears about terrorism and security, especially after the November Paris and July Nice attacks; it has also renewed concerns about the limits of past efforts to integrate newcomers and their descendants.
Evidence from across Europe suggests that Muslims are struggling to succeed in education and the labor market in comparison to other religious and cultural minorities Givens Socioeconomic and political marginalization interacts with immigrants' own sense of belonging: Integration is a two-way street: The challenge of integrating immigrants has been heightened by increasing public acceptability of expressions of anti-Muslim sentiment.
The rise of far-right political parties and their anti-Muslim publicity campaigns, coupled with the media's willingness to report, often uncritically, their positions damage the prospects for integrating Muslims in Europe Lenard The challenges posed by integrating Muslims are thought to be more complex than the challenges of integrating earlier waves of immigrants, but as Patti Lenard argues, this alleged complexity derives from the simplistic and unfair elision between Islamic fundamentalism and the vast majority of Muslim minorities in Europe who desire integration on fairer terms of the sort that multiculturalists defend Lenard In light of these concerns with immigrant multiculturalism, multicultural theorists need to continue to make the case that the ideal of multicultural citizenship stands for fairer terms of integration, not separation and division, and offer answers to questions such as: Why is multicultural citizenship more desirable than the traditional liberal ideal of common citizenship based on a uniform set of rights and opportunities for everyone?
Are multiculturalism policies actually fostering greater integration of immigrants and their descendants? How should we think about the relationship between multiculturalism and struggles to address inequalities based on race, indigeneity, class, gender, sexuality, and disability? It is also important to study the development of multiculturalism beyond the West, including whether and how Western theories and practices of multiculturalism have traveled and been incorporated.
For example, what lessons have states that only recently opened up to significant immigration, such as South Korea, drawn from the experiences of other states, and what sorts of multiculturalism policies have they adopted and why? Lie Alesina, A.
- 10 Multicultural Factors to Consider in Counseling
Glaeser,Fighting Poverty in the U. A World of Difference, Oxford: