Sarcodon martioflavus - WikiVisually
Elias Magnus Fries transferred to the genus Cortinarius in The mushroom is commonly known as the "frosty webcap". . Taxonomy (biology) - The same relationship, expressed as a cladogram typical for cladistics .. The pileus is the technical name for the cap, or cap-like part, of a basidiocarp or ascocarp (fungal. Sarcodon martioflavus is a species of tooth fungus in the family Bankeraceae, found Taxonomy (biology) - The same relationship, expressed as a cladogram typical for cladistics Fungus - Omphalotus nidiformis, a bioluminescent mushroom in the Basidiomycota with basidiocarps (fruit bodies) producing spores on . Growing Mushrooms: PF Tek: This instructable will go over one of the most basic secondary mycelium structure from which the fruit bodies (basidiocarps) form. . No difference, so I've decided to skip the pressure cooker. 0 . back; All · Airsoft · Card Games · Guitars · Instruments · K'NEX · LEGO · Magic Tricks · Minecraft.
Nova Scotia is Canadas second-smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island, the provinces mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km from the ocean, Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations.
These formations are rich on the Bay of Fundys shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundys shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous age fossils, wassons Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic and Jurassic age fossils.
Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone, since the province is almost surrounded by the sea, the climate is closer to maritime than to continental climate. The winter and summer temperature extremes of the climate are moderated by the ocean. However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental — still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west.
This is in spite of Nova Scotia being some fifteen parallels south, areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, and winter lows a little colder.
The province includes regions of the Mikmaq nation of Mikmaki, the Mikmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. InFrench colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port Royal, the British conquest of Acadia took place in In the vast majority of the French population were removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians 6.
Spruces are large trees, from about 20—60 m tall when mature, the needles, or leaves, of spruce trees are attached singly to the branches in a spiral fashion, each needle on a small, peg-like structure.
The needles are shed when 4—10 years old, leaving the branches rough with the retained pegs, spruces are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species. They are also used by the larvae of gall adelgids, the word spruce entered the English language from the Polish Prusy, Prussia.
DNA analyses have shown that traditional classifications based on the morphology of needle, Spruce has been found in the fossil record from the early Cretaceous, million years ago.
Thirty-five named species of spruce exist in the world, the Plant List has 59 accepted spruce names. Daubenmire, after sampling, had already recognized the importance of the 2 latter characters.
Without cones, morphological differentiation among spruce species and their hybrids is more difficult, but, if an extended photoperiod is provided for Sitka spruce, seedlings become unacceptably tall by the end of the first growing season. Growth rhythm, shoot and root weight, and needle serration, or some combination of, Spruce seedlings are most susceptible immediately following germination, and remain highly susceptible through to the following spring.
Seedlings that germinate late in the season are particularly vulnerable because they are tiny and have not had time to harden off fully. Mortality rates generally decrease sharply thereafter, but losses often remain high for some years, establishment is a subjective concept based on the idea that once a seedling has successfully reached a certain size, not much is likely to prevent its further development.
Growth remains very slow for several to many years, Spruce is useful as a building wood, commonly referred to by several different names including North American timber, SPF and whitewood. Spruce wood is used for many purposes, ranging from construction work. The Wright brothers first aircraft, the Flyer, was built of spruce, because this species has no insect or decay resistance qualities after logging, it is generally recommended for construction purposes as indoor use only.
Spruce wood, when left outside cannot be expected to last more than 12—18 months depending on the type of climate it is exposed to, Spruce is one of the most important woods for paper uses, as it has long wood fibres which bind together to make strong paper.
The fibres are thin walled and collapse to thin bands upon drying, spruces are commonly used in mechanical pulping as they are easily bleached. Together with northern pines, northern spruces are commonly used to make NBSK, spruces are cultivated over vast areas as pulpwood 7.
Abies balsamea — Abies balsamea or balsam fir is a North American fir, native to most of eastern and central Canada and the northeastern United States.
Balsam fir is a small to medium-size evergreen tree typically 14—20 metres tall, rarely to 27 metres tall, the bark on young trees is smooth, grey, and with resin blisters, becoming rough and fissured or scaly on old trees. The leaves are flat and needle-like,15 to 30 mm long, dark green above often with a patch of stomata near the tip.
They are arranged spirally on the shoot, but with the leaf bases twisted so that the appear to be in two more-or-less horizontal rows on either side of the shoot. The seed cones are erect,40 to 80 mm long, dark purple, ripening brown, there are two varieties, Abies balsamea var. The name Canaan fir derives from one of its native localities, some botanists regard this variety as a natural hybrid between balsam fir and Fraser fir, which occurs further south in the Appalachian mountains.
On mountain tops, stands of balsam fir occasionally develop fir waves, often found in association with black spruce, white spruce and trembling aspen. The needles are eaten by some caterpillars, for example the Io moth. Both varieties of the species are popular as Christmas trees. The wood is milled for framing lumber, siding and pulped for paper manufacture, balsam fir oil is an EPA approved nontoxic rodent repellent.
The balsam fir is used as an air freshener and as incense. Prior to the availability of foam rubber and air mattresses, balsam fir boughs were a preferred mattress in places where trees greatly outnumbered campers, many fir limbs are vertically bowed from alternating periods of downward deformation from snow loading and new growth reaching upward for sunlight.
Layers of inverted freshly cut limbs from small trees created a pleasantly fragrant mattress lifting bedding off the wet ground, upper layers of limbs were placed with the cut ends of the limbs touching the earth to avoid uncomfortably sharp spots and sap. Balsam fir is the tree of New Brunswick. Balsam of Peru Hunt, Richard S. Hydnoid fungi — The hydnoid fungi are a group of fungi in the Basidiomycota with basidiocarps producing spores on pendant, tooth-like or spine-like projections.
They are colloquially called tooth fungi, originally such fungi were referred to the genus Hydnum, but it is now known that not all hydnoid species are closely related. Hydnum was one of the genera created by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum of It contained all species of fungi with fruit bodies bearing pendant, subsequent authors described around species in the genus.
With increasing use of the microscope, it clear that not all tooth fungi were closely related. The Dutch mycologist Rudolph Arnold Maas Geesteranus paid particular attention to the group, the original genus Hydnum is still current, but is now restricted to the type species, Hydnum repandum, and its relatives in the order Cantharellales. The fruit bodies of fungi are diverse, but all produce their spores on the surface of pendant.
Some terrestrial species producing fruit bodies with a pileus and stipe are known as the stipitate hydnoid fungi and are often studied as a group because of their ecological similarity.
The species concerned are now referred to the genera Bankera, Hydnellum, Phellodon, all are ectomycorrhizal, belong in the Thelephorales, and are considered to be indicator species of old, species-rich forests. In Europe, at least, many are of conservation concern, Species of Hydnum and the related Sistotrema confluens are also mycorrhizal, but have different ecological requirements. Other stipitate hydnoid fungi are wood decomposing, such as species of Beenakia, Climacodon.
The largest group of fungi formerly placed in the genus Hydnum are wood-rotting species, forming patch-like fruit bodies on dead attached branches, logs, stumps, Species with small teeth are sometimes described as odontioid. Species that form fruiting bodies are also considered part of the corticioid fungi.
Genera that have hydnoid or odontioid representatives include Hydnochaete, Hyphodontia and Odonticium, Dentipellis, Dentocorticium, Mycoacia, Radulodon, Steccherinum, other hydnoid fungi include a group of conspicuous, wood-rotting species with long spines belonging to the genus Hericium, often referred to as tooth fungi.
The ear-pick fungus and other species of Auriscalpium are hydnoid, as is the odd jelly fungus Pseudohydnum gelatinosum, the distinction between polypores and hydnoid fungi is not always clear—irregular, split pores can also be interpreted as teeth. Consequently, some species are considered hydnoid or poroid depending on the context, scottish stipitate hydnoid brochure Tooth Fungi at AmericanMushrooms. Basidiomycota — Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya within the kingdom Fungi.
Basidiomycota are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae and reproduce sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external meiospores and these specialized spores are called basidiospores.
However, some Basidiomycota reproduce asexually in addition or exclusively, the most recent classification adopted by a coalition of 67 mycologists recognizes three subphyla and two other class level taxa outside of these, among the Basidiomycota. As now classified, the join and also cut across various obsolete taxonomic groups previously commonly used to describe Basidiomycota.
According to a estimate, Basidiomycota comprise three subphyla 16 classes,52 orders, families,1, genera, and 31, species, the terms basidiomycetes and ascomycetes are frequently used loosely to refer to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. They are often abbreviated to basidios and ascos as mycological slang, the Agaricomycotina include what had previously been called the Hymenomycetes, the Gasteromycetes, as well as most of the jelly fungi. The three classes in the Agaricomycotina are the Agaricomycetes, the Dacrymycetes, and the Tremellomycetes, the class Wallemiomycetes is not yet placed in a subdivision, but recent genomic evidence suggests that it is a sister group of Agaricomycotina.
The Ustilaginomycotina are most of the former smut fungi and the Exobasidiales, the classes of the Ustilaginomycotina are the Exobasidiomycetes, the Entorrhizomycetes, and the Ustilaginomycetes. Typically haploid Basidiomycota mycelia fuse via plasmogamy and then the compatible nuclei migrate into each others mycelia, karyogamy is delayed, so that the compatible nuclei remain in pairs, called a dikaryon. The hyphae are said to be dikaryotic. Conversely, the mycelia are called monokaryons.
Often, the mycelium is more vigorous than the individual monokaryotic mycelia. The dikaryons can be long-lived, lasting years, decades, or centuries, the monokaryons are neither male nor female. They have either a bipolar or a mating system. However, there are variations of these genes in the population. In his three volumes of Systema Mycologicum published between andElias Fries put almost all of the fleshy, gill-forming mushrooms in the genus Agaricus and he organized the large genus into tribes, the names of many of which still exist as common genera of today.
His system had been used as it had the advantage that many genera could be readily identified based on characters observable in the field. Friess classification was later challenged when microscopic studies of basidiocarp structure, initiated by Fayod and Patouillard, singer treated three major groups within the Agaricales sensu lato, the Agaricales sensu stricto, Boletineae, and Russulales.
These groups are still accepted by modern treatments based on DNA analysis, as the clade, bolete clade. Molecular phylogenetics research has demonstrated that the clade is roughly equivalent to Singers Agaricales sensu stricto. The analysis showed that most of the species tested could be grouped into six clades that were named the Agaricoid, Tricholomatoid, Marasmioid, Pluteoid, Hygrophoroid and Plicaturopsidoid clades. Some notable fungi with gill-like structures, such as chanterelles, have long recognized as being substantially different from usual Agaricales.
Also, some quite distinctive fungi, the puffballs, and some clavaroid fungi, e. The term agaric had traditionally referred to Agaricales, which were defined as exactly those fungi with gills, given the discoveries described above, those two categories are not synonymous.
Agarics are ubiquitous, being found across all continents, most are terrestrial, their habitats including all types of woodland and grassland, varying largely from one genus to another. Agarics were long thought to be terrestrial, until the discovery of Psathyrella aquatica.
Agaricals are known from five monotypic genera found fossilized in amber, the oldest records are from two Cretaceous age genera, the Albian age Palaeoagaracites antiquus from Burmese amber and the slightly younger Turonian New Jersey Amber species Archaeomarasmius leggeti. The three other species, Aureofungus yaniguaensis, Coprinites dominicana and Protomycena electra are known from specimens found in the Dominican amber mines of Hispaniola.
Basidiocarps of the agarics are typically fleshy, with a stipe, often called a stem or stalk, a pileus and lamellae and this is the stereotypical structure of a mushroom. The fungus fruit body is the stage of the life cycle 4. Hymenium — The hymenium is the tissue layer on the hymenophore of a fungal fruiting body where the cells develop into basidia or asci, which produce spores.
In some species all of the cells of the hymenium develop into basidia or asci, cystidia are often important for microscopic identification. The subhymenium consists of the hyphae from which the cells of the hymenium grow, beneath which is the hymenophoral trama. The position of the hymenium is traditionally the first characteristic used in the classification and identification of mushrooms, below are some examples of the diverse types which exist among the macroscopic Basidiomycota and Ascomycota.
In agarics the hymenium is on the faces of the gills. In boletes it is in a mass of downward-pointing tubes. In stinkhorns it develops internally and then is exposed in the form of a foul-smelling gel, in cup fungi, it is on the concave surface of the cup.
Mycorrhiza — A mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.
The term mycorrhiza refers to the role of the fungi in the plants rhizosphere, mycorrhizae play important roles in soil biology and soil chemistry. In a mycorrhizal association, the fungus colonizes the host plants root tissues, either intracellularly as in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the association is generally mutualistic, but in particular species or in particular circumstances, mycorrhizae may be variously pathogenic in the host plants.
Mycorrhizal fungi form a relationship with the roots of most plant species. In such a relationship, both the plants themselves and those parts of the roots that host the fungi, are said to be mycorrhizal, the Orchidaceae are notorious as a family in which the absence of the correct mycorrhizae is fatal even to germinating seeds. Recent research into plants in boreal forests has indicated that mycorrhizal fungi. This relationship was noted when mycorrhizal fungi were found to be hoarding nitrogen from plant roots in times of nitrogen scarcity.
Researchers argue that some mycorrhizae distribute nutrients based upon the environment with surrounding plants, the mycorrhizal mutualistic association provides the fungus with relatively constant and direct access to carbohydrates, such as glucose and sucrose. The carbohydrates are translocated from their source to root tissue and on to the fungal partners. The effect is thus to improve the plants mineral absorption capabilities, unaided plant roots may be unable to take up macronutrients that are chemically or physically immobilised, examples include phosphate ions and micronutrients such as iron.
One form of such immobilization occurs in soil with clay content. The mycelium of the fungus can, however, access many such nutrient sources. Thus many plants are able to obtain phosphate, without using soil as a source, Suillus tomentosus, a basidiomycete fungus, produces specialized structures known as tuberculate ectomycorrhizae with its plant host lodgepole pine.
Basidiocarp - Wikipedia
These structures have shown to host nitrogen fixing bacteria which contribute a significant amount of nitrogen. The mechanisms by which mycorrhizae increase absorption include some that are physical, chemically, the cell membrane chemistry of fungi differs from that of plants. For example, they may secrete organic acid that dissolve or chelate many ions, mycorrhizae are especially beneficial for the plant partner in nutrient-poor soils.
Mycorrhizal plants are more resistant to diseases, such as those caused by microbial soil-borne pathogens. AMF was also correlated with soil biological fertility variables such as soil fungi and soil bacteria 6. Mushroom — A mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface, by extension, the term mushroom can also designate the entire fungus when in culture, the thallus of species forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms, or the species itself.
Identifying mushrooms requires an understanding of their macroscopic structure. Their spores, called basidiospores, are produced on the gills, at the microscopic level the basidiospores are shot off basidia and then fall between the gills in the dead air space. As a result, for most mushrooms, if the cap is cut off and placed gill-side-down overnight, the color of the powdery print, called a spore print, is used to help classify mushrooms and can help to identify them.
Spore print colors include white, brown, black, purple-brown, pink, yellow, and creamy, but almost never blue, green, or red. The presence of juices upon breaking, bruising reactions, odors, tastes, shades of color, habitat, habit, tasting and smelling mushrooms carries its own hazards because of poisons and allergens.
Chemical tests are used for some genera. In general, identification to genus can often be accomplished in the using a local mushroom guide.
However, over-mature specimens lose features and cease producing spores, many novices have mistaken humid water marks on paper for white spore prints, or discolored paper from oozing liquids on lamella edges for colored spored prints. Typical mushrooms are the bodies of members of the order Agaricales, whose type genus is Agaricus and type species is the field mushroom. Other mushrooms are not gilled, so the mushroom is loosely used.
Some have pores underneath, others have spines, such as the mushroom and other tooth fungi. Mushroom has been used for polypores, puffballs, jelly fungi, coral fungi, bracket fungi, stinkhorns, thus, the term is more one of common application to macroscopic fungal fruiting bodies than one having precise taxonomic meaning.
Approximately 14, species of mushrooms are described, the terms mushroom and toadstool go back centuries and were never precisely defined, nor was there consensus on application. Between and AD, the terms mushrom, mushrum, muscheron, mousheroms, mussheron, the term mushroom and its variations may have been derived from the French word mousseron in reference to moss. However, delineation between edible and poisonous fungi is not clear-cut, so a mushroom may be edible, poisonous, cultural or social phobias of mushrooms and fungi may be related.
Spore — In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavorable conditions. Spores form part of the cycles of many plants, algae, fungi.
Mushroom Life Cycle
Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions, spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte. Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte, two gametes fuse to form a zygote which develops into a new sporophyte.
Spores germinate to give rise to haploid gametophytes, while seeds germinate to give rise to diploid sporophytes, vascular plant spores are always haploid. Vascular plants are either homosporous or heterosporous, plants that are homosporous produce spores of the same size and type. Spores can be classified in several ways, In fungi and fungus-like organisms, spores are often classified by the structure in which meiosis, since fungi are often classified according to their spore-producing structures, these spores are often characteristic of a particular taxon of the fungi.
Sporangiospores, spores produced by a sporangium in many such as zygomycetes. Zygospores, spores produced by a zygosporangium, characteristic of zygomycetes, ascospores, spores produced by an ascus, characteristic of ascomycetes. Basidiospores, spores produced by a basidium, characteristic of basidiomycetes, aeciospores, spores produced by an aecium in some fungi such as rusts or smuts.
Urediniospores, spores produced by a uredinium in some such as rusts or smuts. Teliospores, spores produced by a telium in some such as rusts or smuts. Oospores, spores produced by an oogonium, characteristic of oomycetes, carpospores, spores produced by a carposporophyte, characteristic of red algae. Tetraspores, spores produced by a tetrasporophyte, characteristic of red algae, chlamydospores, thick-walled resting spores of fungi produced to survive unfavorable conditions.
Parasitic fungal spores may be classified into internal spores, which germinate within the host, meiospores, spores produced by meiosis, they are thus haploid, and give rise to a haploid daughter cell or a haploid individual.
Examples are the cells of gametophytes of seed plants found in flowers or cones. Microspores, meiospores that give rise to a male gametophyte, megaspores, meiospores that give rise to a female gametophyte 8.
Pinophyta — The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single class, Pinopsida.
They are gymnosperms, cone-bearing seed plants, all extant conifers are perennial woody plants with secondary growth. The great majority are trees, though a few are shrubs, examples include cedars, Douglas firs, cypresses, firs, junipers, kauri, larches, pines, hemlocks, redwoods, spruces, and yews.
As ofthe division Pinophyta was estimated to contain eight families,68 genera, although the total number of species is relatively small, conifers are ecologically important. They are the dominant plants over large areas of land, most notably the taiga of the Northern Hemisphere, boreal conifers have many wintertime adaptations.
The narrow conical shape of northern conifers, and their downward-drooping limbs, many of them seasonally alter their biochemistry to make them more resistant to freezing. While tropical rainforests have more biodiversity and turnover, the conifer forests of the world represent the largest terrestrial carbon sink.
Conifers are of economic value for softwood lumber and paper production. The earliest conifers in the record date to the late Carboniferous period, possibly arising from Cordaites. Pinophytes, Cycadophytes, and Ginkgophytes all developed at this time, an important adaptation of these gymnosperms was allowing plants to live without being so dependent on water.