relationship between cariogenic diet recipes
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Processed grains such as white flour and white bread are poor sources of vitamin E. Dark-green leafy vegetables are a low-fat, high-fiber source, although they are much lower in vitamin E content than the oily sources. The safe upper limit is set at 1, IU, but ina review of 19 clinical trials found that taking a vitamin E supplement greater than or equal to IU daily may increase the risk of death.
The decision whether to take vitamin E supplements should therefore be made with care.
It is considered safe to take a vitamin E supplement of up to IU, but trying to get what you need from oils, nuts, whole grains, and green leafy vegetables is the preferred course of action. The carotenoids and vitamin A promote a healthy mouth through their roles in collagen formation, antioxidant activity, and healthy production of the epithelial cells that line the oral cavity.
Carotenoids are a group of phytochemicals plant chemicals called provitamins of vitamin A, which means they are converted to vitamin A in the body.
By themselves, they also have individual antioxidant properties. The best-known carotenoid is beta-carotene. However, lycopene and lutein are also becoming notable for their possible roles in prostate and eye health, respectively. Carotenoids are actually the pigments that give orange-yellow fruits and vegetables their color.
They are easily recognized in carrots, squash, pumpkin, sweet potato, apricots, mango, and peaches. Dark-green vegetables like spinach and kale are also packed with beta-carotene, but the color is masked by the green-colored chlorophyll.
There is no RDA for beta-carotene or the other carotenoids, but consuming these vegetables is the best route to obtaining adequate vitamin A, as well as fiber and other nutrients. Carotenoids are also heat stable, so they are only minimally diminished by cooking. Preformed vitamin A is found in animal products and certain fortified foods and does not need to be converted in the body like the provitamins.
Practical problems in use of sugar substitutes in preventive dentistry
Food sources of preformed vitamin A include liver, egg yolks, and dairy products. While the body needs some vitamin A, too much preformed vitamin A is very toxic and can cause liver damage, birth defects, and bone damage; chronic supplementation of only two or three times the RDA can have these effects. Food is unlikely to cause toxicity, but supplements can easily do so. Neither supplementation of beta-carotene nor preformed vitamin A is recommended unless a person is at risk for deficiency.
Since liver and egg yolks are high in cholesterol, choosing low-fat or nonfat dairy products and filling your grocery cart with beta-carotene-rich green and orange produce is the way to get your daily vitamin A. Fat and cholesterol Several studies have shown an association between blood cholesterol levels and periodontitis. Another study found that dietary cholesterol intake which raises blood cholesterol worsened periodontitis in rats. Saturated fat is found primarily in animal products such as beef, pork, poultry particularly in the skinand dairy products made from whole milk.
Tropical oils such as palm oil and coconut oil are the only major plant sources of saturated fat.
When eating animal protein, choose the varieties that are lowest in saturated fat, such as skinless chicken, fish, and low-fat or nonfat dairy products. Limit portions of animal proteins to one or two 3-ounce servings about the size of a deck of cards or checkbook per day; this will help control both saturated fat and calorie intake. Include more plant proteins such as legumes lentils and dried beansnuts, soy products, and whole grains, which contain very little saturated fat, in your menus.
Cholesterol is only found in animal products, so plant oils, grains, fruits, and vegetables do not contain cholesterol. Most foods containing cholesterol also come with saturated fat, making it easy to cut back on both at the same time. Foods highest in cholesterol are organ meats such as liver, egg yolks, and shellfish. Shellfish is actually very low in saturated fat, but its cholesterol content warrants eating shrimp, lobster, crab, and other varieties of shellfish only occasionally.
Egg whites contain no cholesterol and are a good source of protein, so they are a better choice than whole eggs. Another popular source of cholesterol in the diet is dairy products. To enjoy dairy products while keeping saturated fat and cholesterol intake low, choose low-fat or nonfat dairy products, and minimize your intake of butter, cream, cream cheese, and whole-fat cheeses. Trans fat is found in packaged products containing partially hydrogenated oils and in many of the fried foods served at fast-food and other restaurants.
Trans fat is now listed on food labels, so it can be easily avoided in packaged goods. Look for 0 grams of trans fat, and make sure the ingredients list does not list any partially hydrogenated oil. At restaurants, avoid fried menu items and baked goods such as French fries, fried fish or chicken, doughnuts, and pies unless you are sure that they do not use partially hydrogenated oils in their frying bins and baked goods.
Cavities Cavities are also more prevalent among people with diabetes than in the general population. Cavities are the result of bacteria, plaque, an acidic oral environment, and the presence of carbohydrate in the mouth.
Bacteria and plaque are best controlled through proper dental care, but acidity and the amount of carbohydrate in the mouth are factors that can be affected by diet. A cariogenic, or cavity-causing, environment is one where the pH relative acidity is less than 5. Certain foods such as fruit juice, soda even diet sodachewable vitamin C tablets, and sports drinks create a cavity-friendly level of acidity in the mouth. Most people with diabetes probably already limit their consumption of drinks with added sugar, but consumption of artificially sweetened sodas should also be limited.
Amount, type, duration, and frequency of carbohydrate intake all affect cavity development. However, choosing the right types of carbohydrate will reduce the risk of cavities while still controlling blood glucose levels. Consumption of high amounts of simple sugars like sucrose table sugar is considered highly cariogenic and should be minimized. Starchy foods such as rice, pasta, bread, and potatoes are not cariogenic unless eaten with added sugars.
Dietary fiber has been found to help reduce the incidence of cavities, so eating unrefined starches should not promote cavities. Choosing high-fiber carbohydrates is already recommended for both people with and without diabetes, and having fewer cavities is yet another reason to do so. People with diabetes are often instructed to eat small, frequent meals and to space their carbohydrate intake over the course of the day.
People who frequently need to treat low blood glucose hypoglycemia may also suck on hard candies to raise blood glucose. While frequent and prolonged exposure to carbohydrate increases the risk for cavities, it is only thought to be a problem when carbohydrate simple sugars, in particular is eaten alone, without protein or fat.
Meals in a balanced diabetes meal plan typically contain protein, fat, and carbohydrate, so eating small, frequent meals for diabetes control should contribute to, not detract from, oral health.
Practical problems in use of sugar substitutes in preventive dentistry
However sucking on candy or mints can lead to increased cavities, so it is wise to use glucose tablets or beverages to treat or prevent hypoglycemia, since they clear the mouth more quickly than hard candies. Anti-cavity nutrients Fluoride is a mineral that is known to prevent cavities but is not found readily in most foods.
However, it is available in toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoridated water. Check with your dentist on the amount of fluoride in your local water supply some communities do not have fluoridated water to see if you should consider taking supplemental fluoride.
Sugars and dental caries | The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Oxford Academic
Eating protein with meals is anticariogenic because it serves as a pH buffer, preventing acidic conditions in the mouth. Again, choose proteins that are low in fat and cholesterol, and emphasize fibrous plant proteins. Fiber, a type of carbohydrate, is not metabolized by the oral bacteria, so it cannot produce cavities. Fibrous foods also require more chewing than nonfibrous foods, and chewing stimulates saliva secretion. Low salivary flow is also linked to increased dental cavities.
Dairy products contain the anticariogenic nutrients casein, calcium, and phosphorous; in addition, milk sugar, or lactose, is the only simple sugar that is not considered to be cariogenic.
Low-fat and nonfat dairy products provide the same anticariogenic nutrients without the harmful fat and cholesterol found in full-fat products. Dark-green vegetables are good plant sources of anticariogenic calcium, and they also provide beta-carotene and fiber. Both xylitol and tea are emerging as strongly anticariogenic foods. Xylitol, a sugar alcohol, is not widely used in foods but is found in some brands of sugarless gum. Xylitol has a minimal effect on blood glucose level, so chewing gum containing it should not disrupt blood glucose control.
Chewing gum that contains xylitol after meals and snacks provides the mouth with xylitol, helps clear the mouth of cariogenic foods, and stimulates saliva flow.
If gum chewing is not possible, drinking a cup of green or black tea may produce similar benefits. The tea plant, Camellia sinensis, may have antimicrobial and other preventative effects on cavity formation. Definitions of terms Anticariogenic: Previously called baby bottle tooth decay or maxillary anterior caries; refers to one or more primary maxillary incisors that is decayed, missing or filled Fermentable carbohydrate: Diet has a local effect on oral health, primarily on the integrity of the teeth, pH, and composition of the saliva and plaque.
Nutrition, however, has a systemic effect on the integrity of the oral cavity, including teeth, periodontium supporting structure of the teethoral mucosa, and alveolar bone. Alterations in nutrient intake secondary to changes in diet intake, absorption, metabolism, or excretion can affect the integrity of the teeth, surrounding tissues, and bone as well as the response to wound healing.
Tooth erosion is not an infectious disease, but the resultant defects impair the integrity of the tooth. The etiology of the diseases differs with the extent to which diet and nutrition are involved. Although enamel defects may be related to nutrition during tooth formation, they are not addressed here. Tooth erosion is the progressive loss of dental hard tissue by acids in a process that does not involve bacteria or sugars.
The intrinsic acids are from vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux, and regurgitation 3. The extrinsic acids are from the diet [eg, sports beverages 4 and citrus products, including citrus fruit, juices, soft drinks, and citrus-flavored candies and lozenges] or from the occupational environment eg, battery and galvanizing factories 5.