Where did all the Christian Denominations come from?
Date of start of Christian faith groups. Sponsored link. OR in -- one of many churches which contained the phrase "Church of God. See where all of the Christian Denominations came from and how they from the date of its formation to its historical relation to the Christian Family Tree. The Church transcends the contingent facts of this world, yet at the same time is . Eastern Christian Churches allow clerical marriage, for they accept the gift of.
Inthere was a serious fire at the rectory and John Wesley nearly perished. Charismata as manifested in the life of the individual. In contrast to the Lutheran doctrine of electing a hierarchy of bishops Greek: Episcopoi to govern the church, Reformed churches usually elect elders Greek: Presbyteroi to carry out this function.
The elders work together as a group but are accountable to higher groups known as presbyteries, synods or assemblies. Some Reformed churches adhere to Congregational polity and these are listed separately. Miller originally predicted the return of Christ inthe failure of which became known as the Great Disappointment. Several groups arose out of the Millerite movement, the largest of which is known as the Seventh Day Adventists, who regard Saturday as the correct day of the Sabbath.
Their position within mainstream Protestant Christianity is disputed. Menno Simonseventually emerged as leader of the movement.
Persecution led many followers to flee to the USA and Canada, where they flourish to this day. There are around 1 million Mennonites worldwide and many of them follow the Dordrecht Confession of A resulting schism resulted in the formation of a new group of Mennonites, who came to be known as Amish. Many Amish emigrated to the USA and survive today in tightly knit communities. They are known for their rejection of modern lifestyles and reject the use of cars, electricity and other modern conveniencies.
Like many Mennonites, they are a strongly peace loving people, rejecting all forms of violence. Other Anabaptist groups include the Hutterites, named after Jakob Hutter c. They are a much smaller group who today reside mainly in North America. Anglican The Anglican churches comprise those that follow the established customs and practices of the Church of England. The history of Anglicanism as a separate denomination really began with the decision of Henry VIII to overthrow the authority of the Roman Catholic church in England.
Cranmer drew up the Book of Common Prayer in later revised in In the 39 Articles were written, giving a clear exposition of Anglican theology in response to that of the Roman Catholic church. The break with the Catholic church was not initially over doctrine, rather it could be seen as a power struggle between church and state. To this day, some Anglicans prefer to see the church as being both Catholic and Protestant, a sort of via media middle way between the two groups: Catholic — for example, the church claims apostolic succession.
The See of Canterbury was established in the sixth century. Protestant — for example, the church rejects the universal authority of the Pope. For example, the use of liturgical vestments, incense and prayerful devotion to Mary was encouraged. This was known as the Oxford Movement, so called because many of its leaders were based there. Chief amongst them was John Henry Newmanwho famously wrote a series of articles known as the Tracts for the timesoutlining the view of the Church of England as the via media.
In Tract 90, published inNewman attempted to show that the 39 articles were not incompatible with Catholic belief and the misunderstandings of Catholic doctrine in the articles could be resolved.
Denominations – Introduction to Protestantism
This led to a dispute and the Bishop of Oxford decided to forbid any further publication of the tracts. Eventually Newman became a Cardinal and continued to write theological works, including his theory of the Development of Doctrine, explaining how Catholic belief has developed over the centuries.
The Oxford movement continues to this day in the form of Anglo-Catholicism or what might be called a High church position, in contrast to other Anglicans who favour a more Protestant theology Low church. A mixture of these views coexists within the church. As an example, some accept the seven Roman Catholic sacraments of Baptism, Eucharist, Confirmation, Anointing of the sick, Penance, Marriage and Holy orders, whereas others hold to only the first two, in common with traditional Protestantism.
The first such conference was held in Inthe conference passed the Lambeth Quadrilateral, giving a clear sense of Anglican identity: Most Baptist congregations are totally independent of each other, but may be associated in organisations such as the Southern Baptist Convention in the USA.
Each congregation has total autonomy in matters of church doctrine and discipline and church meetings are held on a regular basis to deal with these issues. Baptists practice two sacraments also known as Ordinances: Their view of Communion is known as Memorialism: Organisationally, Baptist churches are led by a Pastor Latin: One of the most famous Baptists of the 20th century was Martin Luther Kingthe great American civil rights leader. Congregational Congregational churches are those that emphasise the autonomy of each individual church in governing its affairs.
Regarding the Eucharist, Lutheran belief is that Christ is truly present in the bread and the wine. Luther himself explained this by using an analogy of an iron rod placed into a fire: The Book of Concord In the 17th century in Germany, a movement within Lutheranism developed, emphasising individual conversion, detailed study of the bible and a more active role for the laity in the government of the church.
Pietist ideas did not meet with universal support, but in later times they were to exert a significant influence on John Wesley and the Methodist movement. Methodist The story of the Methodist church really begins with the Wesley family: Here people could commit themselves to prayer and bible study. The group soon attracted the attention of other students, not all of whom were in favour of this new way of worshiping God.
John was present at a meeting in Aldersgate Street, London when as he put it: I felt I did trust in Christ, Christ alone for salvation; and an assurance was given me that He had taken away my sins, even mine, and saved me from the law of sin and death. The stage was now set for both brothers to bring the good news to the masses. What was distinctive was their method — open-air meetings designed to attract many people, irrespective of class.
John Wesley may have travelled overmiles and preached over 40, sermons during his lifetime — a remarkable achievement. As Methodism grew as a movement within the Church of England, it became necessary to look at ways in which it might be governed. Circuit plans were drawn up for each minister and this system continues to the present day. Each circuit makes up a district and representatives from each district attend an annual conference.
Today, Methodist churches are found around the globe. Church membership in the UK is aboutand about 70 million people worldwide have some form of link with the Methodist church source: Charles Wesley, as well as being a preacher, gave Methodism a wonderful legacy in his hymn writing. In the Methodist movement seceded from the Church of England and became a separate Protestant denomination. However, the two groups have always had strong links, and in a joint covenant was signed to explore ways of working together.
The Basic theology of Methodism is known as Arminianism after Jacob Arminiuswho questioned some of the doctrines held by John Calvin. Arminianism emphasises the free will of individuals to follow or reject Christ and the possibility of one losing their salvation.
The exception to the Arminian view is held by Methodists in Wales, who tend to be more Calvinistic in doctrine. In common with many Protestants, Methodists hold to two sacraments: The idea is a form of Christian perfection, occuring sometime after conversion and stripping away all guilt of original sin. The believer is equipped with a pure heart free of sinful thoughts and motives. Methodist teaching is sometimes summed up in four particular ideas known as the four alls.
All need to be saved — the doctrine of original sin. All can be saved — Universal Salvation. All can know they are saved — Assurance. This issue is further complicated by the existence of groups of congregations with a common heritage that are officially nondenominational and have no centralized authority or records, but which are identified as denominations by non-adherents.
Study of such churches in denominational terms is therefore a more complex proposition. Some groups count membership based on adult believers and baptized children of believers, while others only count adult baptized believers.
Others may count membership based on those adult believers who have formally affiliated themselves with the congregation. In addition, there may be political motives of advocates or opponents of a particular group to inflate or deflate membership numbers through propaganda or outright deception.
Denominationalism [ edit ] Denominationalism is the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels, beliefs, and practices. They argued that differences among Christians were inevitable, but that separation based on these differences was not necessarily schism.
Christian Denominations - ReligionFacts
Christians are obligated to practice their beliefs rather than remain within a church with which they disagree, but they must also recognize their imperfect knowledge and not condemn other Christians as apostate over unimportant matters. As ofdivisions are becoming less sharp, and there is increasing cooperation between denominations. In these churches, it is not possible to have a separation over doctrinal or leadership issues, and any such attempts automatically are a type of schism.
Some Protestant groups reject denominationalism as well. Protestantism in general, as well as Restorationism in particular, claims a direct connection with Early Christianity. Historical schisms and divisions[ edit ] Christianity has not been a monolithic faith since the first century or Apostolic Ageif ever, and today there exist a large variety of groups that share a common history and tradition within and without mainstream Christianity.
Christianity is the largest religion in the world making up approximately one-third of the population and the various divisions have commonalities and differences in tradition, theologychurch governmentdoctrine, and language. The largest schism or division in many classification schemes is between the families of Eastern and Western Christianity.
After these two larger families come distinct branches of Christianity. Most classification schemes list six in order of size: Roman CatholicismProtestantismEastern OrthodoxyAnglicanismOriental Orthodoxyand the Church of the East, which was originally referred to as Nestorianism but in modern times is embodied by the Assyrian Church of the East.
Unlike Roman Catholicism, Protestantism is a general movement that has no universal governing authority. From these come denominations, which in the West, have independence from the others in their doctrine. The Eastern and Roman Catholic churches, due to their hierarchical structures, are not said to be made up of denominations, rather, they include kinds of regional councils and individual congregations and church bodies, which do not officially differ from one another in doctrine.
Antiquity[ edit ] The initial differences between the East and West traditions stem from socio-cultural and ethno-linguistic divisions in and between the Western Roman and Byzantine Empires. Since the West that is, Western Europe spoke Latin as its lingua franca and the East Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and northern Africa largely used Aramaic and Koine Greek to transmit writings, theological developments were difficult to translate from one branch to the other.
In the course of ecumenical councils large gatherings of Christian leaderssome church bodies split from the larger family of Christianity.
Many earlier heretical groups either died off for lack of followers or suppression by the church at large such as ApollinariansMontanistsand Ebionites. The first significant, lasting split in historic Christianity came from the Church of the Eastwho left following the Christological controversy over Nestorianism in the Assyrians in released a common Christological statement with the Roman Catholic Church. Today, the Assyrian and Roman Catholic Church view this schism as largely linguistic, due to problems of translating very delicate and precise terminology from Latin to Aramaic and vice versa see Council of Ephesus.
Following the Council of Chalcedon inthe next large split came with the Syriac and Coptic churches dividing themselves, with the dissenting churches becoming today's Oriental Orthodoxy.
In modern times, there have also been moves towards healing this split, with common Christological statements being made between Pope John Paul II and Syriac patriarch Ignatius Zakka I Iwasas well as between representatives of both Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy.
There has been a claim that the Chalcedonian Creed restored Nestorianism, however this is refuted by maintaining the following distinctions associated with the person of Christ: East-West Schism In Western Christianity, there were a handful of geographically isolated movements that preceded the spirit of the Protestant Reformation.
The Cathars were a very strong movement in medieval southwestern France, but did not survive into modern times. This movement has largely been absorbed by modern-day Protestant groups. In Bohemiaa movement in the early 15th century by Jan Hus called the Hussites defied Roman Catholic dogma and still exists to this day alternately known as the Moravian Church.
Although the church as a whole did not experience any major divisions for centuries afterward, the Eastern and Western groups drifted until the point where patriarchs from both families excommunicated one another in about in what is known as the Great Schism. The political and theological reasons for the schism are complex, but one major controversy was the inclusion and acceptance in the West of the filioque clause into the Nicene Creedwhich the East viewed as erroneous.
Another was the definition of papal primacy. Both West and East agreed that the patriarch of Rome was owed a "primacy of honour" by the other patriarchs those of AlexandriaAntiochConstantinople and Jerusalembut the West also contended that this primacy extended to jurisdiction, a position rejected by the Eastern patriarchs. Various attempts at dialogue between the two groups would occur, but it was only in the s, under Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagorasthat significant steps began to be made to mend the relationship between the two.
Door of the Schlosskirche castle church in Wittenberg to which Luther is said to have nailed his 95 Theses on 31st Octobersparking the Reformation.
Protestant Reformation 16th century [ edit ] Main article: Luther's writingscombined with the work of Swiss theologian Huldrych Zwingli and French theologian and politician John Calvin sought to reform existing problems in doctrine and practice.
Due to the reactions of ecclesiastical office holders at the time of the reformers, these reformers separated from the Roman Catholic Church, instigating a rift in Western Christianity. Thomas Cranmer as Archbishop of Canterbury introduced the Reformation, in a form compromising between the Calvinists and Lutherans.