The findings of this study expand on the previous literature pertaining to the relationships between working memory, creativity and intelligence. Keywords. First, this study explored if children with ADHD (n =22) were more . memory is involved with tasks that consists of reasoning with verbal materials, whereas that there is a strong relation between intelligence and creativity. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between intelligence and different These models thus assume a substantial correlation between creativity and . Denken; FID), verbal short-term memory (verbales Kurzzeitgedächtnis; VEK).
He found a positive linear relationship in the lower to average IQ range while there was no correlation at above-average levels of intelligence. Creativity Creativity is a concept of individual differences which is intended to explain why some people have higher potential to provide new solutions to old problems than others.
Creativity is usually examined at different conceptual levels. One of the most general distinctions to be made is the one between creative potential as opposed to creative achievement Eysenck, In turn, creative achievement refers to the actual realization of this potential in terms of real-life accomplishments such as having made a scientific discovery, written a novel etc.
Although different authors use different terminologies such as Little-C vs. Accordingly, divergent thinking tests involve open problems for which a variety of possible solutions can be found.
A widely used DT task is the alternate uses task in which participants are instructed to find creative uses for everyday objects for example: DT tests can be scored with respect to different criteria usually involving ideational fluency, i. This is especially true when a summative originality scoring is employed where originality may directly increase with the number of ideas i. Creative achievement is commonly assessed by means of self-reports such as biographical questionnaires in which participants indicate their achievements across diverse domains e.
Besides its relationship to intelligence, personality correlates of creative potential have been extensively studied. The most consistent and significant finding is that creative potential is positively related to openness to experiences cf. Open people are imaginative and curious, which forms a good basis for creative endeavors across all domains. On the contrary, the relationship to other personality traits such as conscientiousness or neuroticism strongly depends on the investigated domain.
The threshold hypothesis The basic idea behind the threshold hypothesis is that high creativity requires high or at least above-average intelligence. At this, above-average intelligence is thought to form a necessary but not a sufficient condition for high creativity Guilford, More specifically, it is assumed that there exists a threshold in intelligence which is usually set to an IQ of While creativity should be limited by intelligence below this threshold, differences in intelligence should be no longer relevant to creativity above it.
Accordingly, the threshold hypothesis predicts a correlation between measures of creativity and IQ only in low to average IQ samples, whereas there should be no correlation in groups of higher IQ.
Sligh, Conners, and Roskos-Ewoldsen reported a slight threshold effect for crystallized intelligence while an inverse threshold effect was found for fluid intelligence.
After controlling for speed of information processing, the correlations of intelligence and ideational fluency were markedly reduced, but still no group differences were found. Thus, the results did not support the threshold hypothesis. Correlations between the two constructs were markedly lower when the type of creativity test was taken into account as a moderator: Like in an early study of Wallach and Kogannon-speeded tests were practically uncorrelated with intelligence.
Turning from creative potential to creative achievement, no evidence for an intelligence-threshold was found in recent investigations: Thus, individual differences in intelligence are highly relevant to real-life achievement not only the in general population e.
Methodological considerations for investigating the threshold hypothesis Recently, Karwowski and Gralewski tested the threshold hypothesis in light of different methodological considerations. The authors proposed three possible criteria in order to accept or reject the threshold hypothesis by means of the correlational approach: The most liberal criterion would be a significant positive correlation below the threshold and an insignificant correlation above it.
As a more conservative criterion, there should be a significant positive correlation below the threshold that is significantly higher than the correlation above the threshold. The most conservative test would be to claim a significant positive correlation below, an insignificant correlation above the threshold, and a significant difference between both of them. The authors investigated the threshold hypothesis at different levels of intelligence Taken together, investigations of the relationship between intelligence and creative potential provide a scattered view: While some studies support a threshold effect, others report low to moderate positive correlations throughout the whole spectrum of intellectual ability.
One possible reason for the seemingly contradictory empirical findings could be the different conceptions and measures of creative potential employed by these studies. While some used ideational fluency as a single quantitative indicator of creative potential, other studies also included qualitative measures including ideational originality.
In fact, it seems that none of the sources that are usually quoted when the threshold hypothesis is concerned e. It hence appears that, even in absence of any empirical evidence for an IQ-threshold atthis very specific assumption of the threshold hypothesis has hardly ever been questioned or examined thoroughly. The present research This study aims at the identification of a possible threshold in the intelligence—creativity-relationship by means of continuous data analysis methods.
We applied segmented linear regression analysis which allows for an empirical test of whether and where there is a significant shift in a correlation pattern. Segmented regression analysis is common in the field of epidemiology, where dose—response-relationships are evaluated in terms of threshold models.
Here, X reflects different time points before and after an intervention and Y represents the potential outcome. We investigated three common indicators of creative potential: Ideational fluency, ideational originality as measured by a constant number of ideas Benedek et al.
Additionally, we tested whether the threshold hypothesis also applies to creative achievement. It was predicted that the threshold hypothesis does not hold true for creative achievement Park et al.
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If a significant breakpoint is detected and intelligence does not predict creative potential beyond it, it would be of particular interest to further examine which other constructs can explain variance in creative potential above the threshold. Therefore, we also tested whether correlations of creativity and personality variables are affected by potential intelligence-thresholds. Participants In order to obtain a heterogeneous and not solely academic sample, we recruited participants via a local newspaper as well as the university's mailing lists.
After excluding one person due to excessive missing data, the sample consisted of respondents males with an average age of Participants were paid for taking part in the study.
According to the three-ring theory of giftedness proposed by Renzullia gifted individual has both high intellectual ability and high creativity; intelligence and creativity significantly overlap in this meaning. All previously mentioned theories indicate a close relationship between intelligence and creativity. Therefore, the focus is how the two variables are related Plucker and Renzulli, Of all explanations, the threshold hypothesis Getzels and Jackson, ; Guilford, ; Fuchs-Beauchamp et al.
According to this theory, the relationship between creativity and intelligence may vary at different levels of intelligence. Guilford and Christensen assumed a break in the correlation data between intelligence quotient IQ and creativity at an IQ level of approximately Below an IQ level ofa correlation between IQ and creativity is observed, whereas no correlation is observed at IQ levels above The basic idea of the threshold hypothesis means that high creativity requires high intelligence or above-average intelligence.
Above-average intelligence is considered to form a necessary but insufficient condition for high creativity Guilford, People with intelligence below average intelligence have little chance of being very creative; those with intelligence above the threshold may have the potential of high creativity but it is not related to their IQ level.
As Plucker et al. Among them, only a few in fact have systematically examined the threshold hypothesis and conclusions are inconsistent Runco, Through the study of a gifted sample, Barronobserved intelligence had no significant correlation with creativity but a significant correlation did exist in a sample of average intelligence. Schubert and Weinstein and Bobko discovered that the relationship between intelligence and creativity varies with different levels of IQ and intelligence has a weaker correlation with creativity in the top half of the intelligence range than in the bottom half of the intelligence range.
In contrast to these points, some studies provide evidence that does not support the threshold hypothesis. For example, Runco and Albert used California Achievement Test CAT scores as the estimate of intelligence and discovered that the coefficient between DT and the CAT was very significant in the high ability group with fifth to eighth grader students; this result refuted the threshold hypothesis.
Moreover, a problem of a common measure applied to investigate the threshold hypothesis was mentioned in related research recently. In previous studies, researchers tested the threshold hypothesis by dividing a sample at a given level e. However, empirical studies cannot prove that the threshold should be defined as IQ points Jauk et al. Based on this consideration, several very recent studies examined the threshold using different data analysis techniques.
For example, Karwowski and Gralewski observed a threshold of IQ points in a sample of Polish middle school students after applying item response theory and confirmatory factor analysis. For a particularly advanced indicator such as creative achievement, no threshold effect was observed, which suggests that intelligence is linked with creative achievement across the entire IQ range.
Instead of setting a threshold prior to statistical analysis, techniques such as segmented regression can detect the breakpoint in continuous data Jauk et al. Furthermore, Karwowski et al. Based on these analyses, the current study performed these two empirical methods to explore the relationship between creativity and intelligence.
Considering that previous studies explored the threshold effect of participants in Western culture e. As many previous studies indicated, compared with their counterparts in Western developed countries, Chinese adolescents and children demonstrated significantly lower performance in creativity e.
However, numerous other studies revealed that Chinese subjects were not inferior in intelligence to Western subjects Lynn et al. To explain this inconsistent phenomenon, intelligence likely contributes less to creativity among Chinese children, and the threshold of intelligence if it does exist will be lower than the threshold of intelligence among Western children which is typically hypothesized as points.
The variation in the threshold effect of intelligence for Chinese children should be examined considering the cultural differences between Chinese children and Western children.
Studies of the association between personality traits and DT have been conducted using different samples in recent years Gelade, Of these personality factors, openness to experience is viewed as the most important factor for creativity Furnham, ; Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham, because it is consistently linked with all criteria of creativity Kerr and McKay, Some recent studies investigated the role of openness to experience in the intelligence—creativity relationship.
In a questionnaire study with high school students, Ivcevic and Brackett identified a significant interaction between emotional regulation ability and openness to experience. This result revealed that openness can moderate the relationship between emotional intelligence measured by emotional regulation ability and creativity. Intelligence was closely associated with creativity when an individual had a medium openness or high openness to experience. An examination of whether this enhancing effect of openness consistently exists at different levels of intelligence is necessary.
This research aimed to verify the possible threshold in the intelligence—creativity link with Chinese children via testing and questionnaire methods and an analysis that employed a subsection linear regression model and the NCA.
We also examined the moderating role of openness to experience and focused on how it affected the correlation between intelligence and creativity. The mean age for fifth graders is Informed consent was provided by the parents and teachers of these children prior to their participation in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. This test contains four tasks.
For the first task, participants view an elf in a picture and pose as many questions as possible about the scene. For the second task, a picture with an unclear subject is presented to the students, who need to interpret it using as many different nouns as they can.
For the third task, participants are required to add lines to 30 pairs of parallel lines to finish many novel and meaningful drawings. For the last task, they are asked to complete ten unfinished drawings by adding lines. Tasks 1, 3, and 4 are selected from the TTCT and have high reliability and validity.