Relationship between diencephalon and brain stem

Brainstem - Wikipedia

relationship between diencephalon and brain stem

In adults, the diencephalon appears at the upper end of the brain stem, situated as a connection between the limbic system and other parts of the brain. It is the connection between the cerebrum and the rest of the nervous system, . The pons is the main connection between the cerebellum and the brain stem. brain stem and diencephalon. 1. Brainstem and Diencephalon Karl Yu 48 Zed Sabella 42; 2. stemlike part of the brain that is connected to.

It also acts as a relay station between the lower centers and the higher centers of the brain, but also contains important visual and auditory reflex centers, as well as motor pathways that connect the cerebrum to the cerebellum.

It maintains homeostasis by regulating such things as: Hunger and body weight Water and electrolytes through controlling thirst Sleep and wakefulness body temperature blood pressure and heart rate sexual response secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland. It plays a key role in pain, touch, and temperature sensation, as well as in attention, alertness and memory.

Thalamus 19 The corpus callosum connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres and facilitates communication between the hemispheres. It is the largest white matter structure in the brain, consisting of — million myelinated axons.

relationship between diencephalon and brain stem

The brain and spinal cord are covered and protected by the bones of the cranium and the vertebral column. The brain has hollow fluid-filled cavities called ventricles. Specific areas of the cerebrum interpret sensory impulses. For example, spoken and written language are transmitted to a part of the cerebrum called Wernicke's Comparison of the brains of an earthworm, an insect, a bird, and a human.

relationship between diencephalon and brain stem

Motor areas of the cerebrum control muscle movements. Broca's area translates thoughts into speech, and coordinates the muscles needed for speaking.

CNS: Intro to Brain and Ventricles, Medulla Oblongata, Pons, Mid-Brain and Cerebellum

Impulses from other motor areas direct hand muscles for writing and eye muscles for physical movement necessary for reading. The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres—left and right. In general, the left half of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa. For most right-handed people and many left-handed people as wellthe left half of the brain is dominant.

By studying patients whose corpus callosum had been destroyed, scientists realized that differences existed between the left and right sides of the cerebral cortex. The left side of the brain functions mainly in speech, logic, writing, and arithmetic.

Brain Anatomy | White Matter, Cerebellum, Cerebral Cortex, Medulla

The right side of the brain, on the other hand, is more concerned with imaginationart, symbols, and spatial relations. The cerebrum's outer layer, the cerebral cortex, is composed of gray matter made up of nerve cell bodies. The cerebral cortex is about 0. White matter, composed of nerve fibers covered with myelin sheaths, lies beneath the gray matter.

Diencephalon - Wikipedia

During embryonic development, the gray matter grows faster than the white matter and folds on itself, giving the brain its characteristic wrinkly appearance. The folds are called convolutions or gyri, and the grooves between them are known as sulci. A deep fissure separates the cerebrum into a left and right hemisphere, with the corpus callosum, a large bundle of fibers, connecting the two.

The cerebellum The cerebellum is located below the cerebrum and behind the brain stem. It is butterfly-shaped, with the "wings" known as the cerebellar hemispheres.

The cerebellum controls many subconscious activities, such as balance and muscular coordination.

Neuroanatomy - The Brainstem

Disorders related to damage of the cerebellum are ataxia problems with coordinationdysarthria unclear speech resulting from problems controlling the muscles used in speakingand nystagmus uncontrollable jerking of the eyeballs. A brain tumor that is relatively common in children known as medullablastoma grows in the cerebellum.

Studying the brain Researchers have discovered that neurons carry information through the nervous system in the form of brief electrical impulses called action potential s. When an impulse reaches the end of an axon, neurotransmitters are released at junctions called synapse s. The neurotransmitters are chemicals that bind to receptors on the receiving neurons, triggering the continuation of the impulse. Fifty different neurotransmitters have been discovered since the first one was identified in The fourth ventricle has a few holes called apertures, named by their relative positions, such as the lateral aperture and median aperture.

relationship between diencephalon and brain stem

The flow of the CSF can be seen in this article. The medulla oblongata is the lower half of the brainstem. Where the spinal cord ends and the medulla oblongata starts anatomically is the location of the magnum foramen.

Brain Anatomy and Function

Two front columns are called the pyramids where tracts of voluntary motor fibers run together. The decussation of pyramids cross fibers from one side of the brain to the other through the cerebral cortex. The olives are a relay station just anterior to the pyramids. The medulla oblongata is anterior to the 4th ventricle wall look how similar the shape is.

relationship between diencephalon and brain stem

The medulla contains brain nuclei nerve cell bodies called the Reticular Formation.