Diversity and discrimination | nidirect
Diversity in India is the main source of prejudice and promovare-site.info of tolerance to differences lead to conflict in society and thus diversity is not always . BDiversity and the Effects of Bias and Discrimination on Young Adults' Health and .. Indian adolescents: Relationships by levels of acculturation and residence. data in village-level public goods provision in Northern India, supplemented by data on The negative association between ethnic diversity.
For instance, the indigenous Christian population of the Balkansknown as the "rayah" or the "protected flock", was discriminated against under the Ottoman Kanun—i—Rayah. The word is sometimes translated as 'cattle' rather than 'flock' or 'subjects' in order to emphasize the Christian population's inferior status to that of the Muslim rayah.
Local rulers and church officials closed many professions to religious Jews, pushing them into marginal roles considered socially inferior, such as tax and rent collecting and moneylendingoccupations only tolerated as a "necessary evil". In a consultation on the issue, the United States commission on civil rights defined religious discrimination in relation to the civil rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Whereas religious civil liberties, such as the right to hold or not to hold a religious belief, are essential for Freedom of Religion in the United States secured by the First Amendmentreligious discrimination occurs when someone is denied "the equal protection of the laws, equality of status under the law, equal treatment in the administration of justice, and equality of opportunity and access to employment, education, housing, public services and facilities, and public accommodation because of their exercise of their right to religious freedom".
MisogynyMisandryDiscrimination against intersex peopleTransphobiaand Discrimination towards non-binary gender persons Though gender discrimination and sexism refer to beliefs and attitudes in relation to the gender of a person, such beliefs and attitudes are of a social nature and do not, normally, carry any legal consequences.
Sex discrimination, on the other hand, may have legal consequences.
Though what constitutes sex discrimination varies between countries, the essence is that it is an adverse action taken by one person against another person that would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. Discrimination of that nature is considered a form of prejudice and in certain enumerated circumstances is illegal in many countries.
Sexual discrimination can arise in different contexts. For instance, an employee may be discriminated against by being asked discriminatory questions during a job interview, or by an employer not hiring or promoting, unequally paying, or wrongfully terminating, an employee based on their gender.
The gender gap in median earnings of full-time employees according to the OECD One such example is Wikipedia.
Discrimination - Wikipedia
In the Wikipedian community, around 13 percent of registered users are women. Thus, normative processes of identity development can potentially increase vulnerabilities; at the same time, these processes can play a protective role in attenuating the negative effects of bias and discrimination, which we address in more detail later in this appendix. A substantial majority of blacks report that they have personally been exposed to race-related stimuli perceived as biased or discriminatory Clark, ; Seaton et al.
- Diversity and discrimination
- Diversity and Discrimination
In the National Survey of African Life, the majority of black young adults in this instance, African American and Caribbean blacks reported experiencing at least one discriminatory event in the previous year, with increased episodes occurring as they transitioned into young adulthood Seaton et al. A higher incidence of discrimination was reported among females from both ethnic groups.
African Americans and Caribbean Americans reported equal numbers of discriminatory incidents; however, one interesting finding was that exposure to discrimination was associated with greater vulnerability and more negative outcomes for Caribbean American young adults compared with their African American counterparts. The authors speculate that lack of preparation for negative race-related stress among the recent Caribbean immigrants may explain the variability in the groups' responses.
Importantly, these differences reveal that people from the same pan-racial group have diverse experiences with discrimination that are affected by differences in patterns of immigration and cultural norms.
In addition to African Americans, evidence is growing that other immigrant groups, such as Asians and Hispanics, are reporting discrimination that is associated with physical and mental health issues, harmful health behaviors, and decreased access to quality health care Viruell-Fuentes et al. Further, the longer immigrants reside in the United States, the more likely they are to have heightened exposure to bias and discrimination Viruell-Fuentes et al.
According to the minority stress theory, minorities who are openly gay e. Of course, in the United States, all disadvantaged and marginalized groups, including people of color, individuals of low-income status, immigrants, religious minorities e.
The associations between early school leaving and young adults' future outcomes, including joblessness, have been well established see Chapter 4 of this report. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which young adults' perceptions and experiences of racial discrimination at the interpersonal and structural levels limit their ability to succeed in education and employment. Psychological and Physical Functioning Several systematic reviews and recent studies Lee et al.
According to the results of one review Priest et al. A recent meta-analytic review of experimental and correlational studies concludes that perceiving pervasive instances of discrimination negatively affects psychological well-being across a wide range of measures Schmitt et al. Exposure to race-related stress can evoke feelings of anger, hurt, frustration, bitterness, helplessness, and hopelessness and a desire to lash out Wagner et al.
Individuals may attempt to manage their psychological state by relying on various self-soothers, such as overeating and use of alcohol and other substances, which over time can lead to chronic health problems Karlamangla et al.
Negative emotions that may emanate from race-related stress also have been associated with the amplification of biological and physiological responses, including increased blood pressure, elevated fasting glucose, and increased plasma lipid levels, which forecast cardiovascular problems among African American young adults Brody et al. Living in a society where one's everyday life experiences are filtered through prejudice and racism triggers negative reactivity and the use of coping behaviors that may increase one's vulnerability to the onset and escalation of chronic diseases Harrell et al.
Further, exposure to racism, directly and indirectly, even during childhood, can have long-term consequences Martin et al. Persistent exposure to incidents of racism can negatively affect physical health by creating demands on individuals to respond to stress-inducing stimuli, requiring the activation of one's psychological and physiological systems to operate at high levels.
Stress-response dysfunction increases blood pressure, which in turn increases vascular restriction and cardio output. Elevated blood pressure over time causes vascular resistance. The cycle of heightened physiological responses causes wear and tear on biological systems, including damage to the cardiovascular system. This cyclic link between race-related stress and cardiovascular risk vulnerabilities has been implicated as a major predictor of a range of developmental and health outcomes, including sleep disorders Beatty et al.
Childhood exposure to racism is associated with less healthy pregnancy outcomes among African American women of childbearing age Hilmert et al. This finding reveals that one can be greatly affected by witnessing race-related events occurring to someone else, and that such experiences can be linked to blood pressure and depressive symptoms many years later Caughy et al. Further, race-related stress has consistently been linked to preterm and low-birthweight infants among African American and Puerto Rican women Earnshaw et al.
Decline in psychological functioning and elevated blood pressure in response to race-related stress create a toxic maternal-fetal environment, causing reduced fetal growth and early delivery Earnshaw et al.
Additional research is needed to determine and explain how exposure to racism is transmuted from psychosocial experiences into physiological outcomes and to identify the etiological mechanisms by which experiences of racism and discrimination affect the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults of color. Acculturation Stress Acts of discrimination toward individuals because of immigrant status, legal status, skin tone, and language can contribute to acculturation stress.
Immigrant status, skin tone, and phenotypic characteristics intersect through social interactions with members of the dominant culture among adolescents and young adults of color.
Many, but not all, adolescents and young adults who abandon their home culture and fully assimilate in the dominant culture fare less well than those who maintain the home culture Berry, Assimilation heightens family conflict that can reduce cultural support systems shown to buffer persons of color from negative outcomes often associated with stress-inducing events Burnam et al. Acculturation stress has been associated with increased depression in immigrants Heilemann et al.
It also has been associated with higher odds of a past suicide attempt among immigrants compared with individuals born in the United States Gomez et al. On the other hand, the experience of bias or discrimination may foster stronger connections to one's own culture as young adults reject pressures to adapt and assimilate to the dominant society and instead maintain norms, attitudes, behaviors, and practices of their home culture Padilla, Deeper understanding of this potentially protective process is needed.
Several studies have identified factors that buffer, protect against, or reduce the impact of racism and discriminatory experiences on individuals Luthar, Social Support, Connections, and Belongingness Racial and ethnic identity, perceived to reflect closeness to members of one's own group, has been shown to serve a protective function for people of color.
In addition, racial identity reduces the negative effects of discrimination on individual well-being through the protection of psychosocial resources, specifically social relationships and social support Ida and Christie-Mizell, Cultural Socialization All individuals experience socialization processes that prepare them to be functional members of a society Farver et al.
Parents of racial and ethnic minorities also socialize their children into their own ethnic or natal culture and into the dominant culture, processes that include being aware of, understanding, and developing skills to resolve inconsistencies and conflicting views across cultures Boykin, ; Farver et al.
These parenting socialization processes, which encompass racial socialization Harris-Britt et al. Conclusion A highly salient feature of growing up in America today is the increasingly multicultural character of the society, marked by significant increases in immigration from many different parts of the world.
Today's young adults and their successors will be in their middle years when the country becomes majority minority. As the face of the nation changes, the social experiences of young people maturing in an increasingly diverse population will differ substantially from those of their elders.
At the same time, this country still struggles to overcome its legacy of racial oppression and to ensure equal opportunity for all, regardless of race, ethnicity, sexual preference, and disability. By itself, the increasing diversity of the population provides no assurance that existing patterns of bias, stereotyping, and discrimination will be erased.
However, young adults are the leading edge of the demographic change and can also become the most powerful force for equal rights in the 21st century. Latino adolescents' academic success: The role of discrimination, academic motivation, and gender. Unfair treatment is associated with poor sleep in African American and Caucasian adults: PMC ] [ PubMed: Discrimination and adjustment for Mexican American adolescents: A prospective examination of the benefits of culturally related values.
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