Electrical resistivity is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how strongly that Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical .. so the relation between resistivity and conductivity simplifies to: . First, it is caused by the temperature and thus amount of vibration of the crystal lattice. Temperature-electrical conductivity relation of water for environmental monitoring factor corresponding to 25 degrees C ranged between and correlation between TDS and EC are not always linear. Its ability depends on dissolved ion concentrations, ionic strength, and temperature of measurements.
Therefore, it is important that groundwater temperature is not too high in order not to have microbial proliferation.
Temperature affects biological, chemical and physical activities in the water Yilmaz and Koc, A pH range of 6.
Agbor Obi had the most acidic pH of 6. However an average pH of 6. Although, a pH above 8. However, pH values between 6. Conductivity values of the ground water samples are presented in Table 1. This is a measure of the dissolved ionic component in water and hence electrical characteristic. Electrical conductivity gives an indication of the amount of total dissolved substitution in water Yilmaz and Koc, Values recorded ranged from 8.
Both Boji-Boji areas Agbor and Owa had averages of Agbor Obi area meanwhile, pooled the highest probably due to difference in altitude being far higher altitude-wise and presumably has the lowest water table, therefore probably had a more net leaching effect by comparison. Conductivity of the groundwater for the entire study area stands at an average of This gives a picture of very little solute dissolution generally in the groundwater, rapid ion-exchange between the soil and water, or basically a poor and rather insoluble geologic rock and mineral types.
Low TDS is said to be a characteristic of hills and upload areas that represent areas of recharge according to Olobaniyi et al. COD values ranged from OwaAlero was next with In general, the COD value for the area under study is at an average of COD values in this study suggest a rather low organic content in the soil and groundwater of this study area. As organic matter is the major source of carbonaceous and nitrogenous substances in soil and water bodies; arising from the use of fertilizers, animal and human waste and decaying plant matter all of which gets to the aquifer through leaching.
Correlational matrix study of the parameters Table 2 shows a positive correlation between some of the parameters, temperature correlated very positively with EC and TDS and to a lesser extent COD. Other positive correlations are between: The amount by which EC rises depends on increase in temperature Yilmaz and Koc, However, COD showed weak though positive correlation, with temperature and pH.
Temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids and chemical oxygen demand of the water samples obtained from each of the five sample areas Table 2: Thus, high correlations show that the parameters are derived from the same source Edet et al.
Temperature values are consistent with tropical belt, it can be considered as being ambient relative to the geographical region and not too bad in terms of supporting microbial growth.
Average pH is slightly acidic and indicates corrosion problems, especially in Agbor Obi area.
Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids values are very low; these give a measure of the ionic load and contaminants in the water. Hence, from the EC and TDS values, the groundwater of this study area can be said to have low salt concentration and good for drinking and crop production.
Electrical resistivity and conductivity - Wikipedia
Furthermore, the pH and EC values infer that the water is clearly not saline and suggest its possible likelihood for irrigation agriculture.
Meanwhile, findings suggest that the groundwater in this aquifer is fresh. Chemical oxygen demand values, further give credence to the freshness of the water, implying yet again very minimal organic presence, translating by inference, to good taste, odour and esthetic quality. All parameters clearly fell below WHO international best standards for water quality. Therefore, from results of this study, the groundwater in the study area can be regarded as being of good quality for drinking and agriculture purposes with reference to the parameters under consideration, although with little pH treatment especially in Agbor Obi area.
Electrical resistivity and conductivity
However, further studies with reference to the chemical and microbial analyses will have to be done to have a broader picture of this water quality. Appreciation also goes to the management of the College of Education, Agbor under whose auspices this Grant was offered for the enabling environment for academic growth and development.
We also wish to thank individuals and research outfits whose experiences and resources were consulted in this exercise. Finally and most importantly, we give thanks to God Almighty the Giver and Sustainer of life. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. This is what causes the high electronic conductivity of metals.
An important part of band theory is that there may be forbidden bands of energy: In insulators and semiconductors, the number of electrons is just the right amount to fill a certain integer number of low energy bands, exactly to the boundary.
In this case, the Fermi level falls within a band gap. Since there are no available states near the Fermi level, and the electrons are not freely movable, the electronic conductivity is very low. Free electron model Like balls in a Newton's cradleelectrons in a metal quickly transfer energy from one terminal to another, despite their own negligible movement. A metal consists of a lattice of atomseach with an outer shell of electrons that freely dissociate from their parent atoms and travel through the lattice.
This is also known as a positive ionic lattice. When an electrical potential difference a voltage is applied across the metal, the resulting electric field causes electrons to drift towards the positive terminal. The actual drift velocity of electrons is typically small, on the order of magnitude of meters per hour.
However, due to the sheer number of moving electrons, even a slow drift velocity results in a large current density. Most metals have electrical resistance. In simpler models non quantum mechanical models this can be explained by replacing electrons and the crystal lattice by a wave-like structure. When the electron wave travels through the lattice, the waves interferewhich causes resistance.
The more regular the lattice is, the less disturbance happens and thus the less resistance. The amount of resistance is thus mainly caused by two factors. First, it is caused by the temperature and thus amount of vibration of the crystal lattice. The temperature causes bigger vibrations, which act as irregularities in the lattice. Second, the purity of the metal is relevant as a mixture of different ions is also an irregularity. Semiconductor and Insulator electricity In metals, the Fermi level lies in the conduction band see Band Theory, above giving rise to free conduction electrons.
However, in semiconductors the position of the Fermi level is within the band gap, about halfway between the conduction band minimum the bottom of the first band of unfilled electron energy levels and the valence band maximum the top of the band below the conduction band, of filled electron energy levels.
That applies for intrinsic undoped semiconductors. This means that at absolute zero temperature, there would be no free conduction electrons, and the resistance is infinite. However, the resistance decreases as the charge carrier density i. In extrinsic doped semiconductors, dopant atoms increase the majority charge carrier concentration by donating electrons to the conduction band or producing holes in the valence band.
A "hole" is a position where an electron is missing; such holes can behave in a similar way to electrons. For both types of donor or acceptor atoms, increasing dopant density reduces resistance.