From globalisation to global citizenship
Citizenship and Human Rights in the Age of Globalization about the relationship between state and civil society; and third, assumptions about tolerance. PDF | Across much of the globe over the past decade two of the most powerful organising processes have been those of citizenship' and globalisation'. consequences of globalization for national states and for the future of founda- it defines the relationship between the individual and the state, ever increasingly.
Due to the concept of Citizenship, Citizens expect certain rights from their state as well as help and protection wherever they may travel. However due to globalization the concept of citizenship with respect to particular state is becoming more complex. The movement of people across national boundaries to live and work calls into question issues of national identity and belonging, of membership in a polity, and of the rights that accrue to that membership.
For example, an Indian who have migrated from the country for work and renounced once citizenship wants to reconnect with the nation. Then question arises what their rights and duties are with respect to the India.
Globalization and its impact on Citizenship
Its holder is defined as: The one who formerly resigned Indian citizenship. The one whose parents, grandparents or great grandparents were once the citizen of India. But here is a condition applied that that person would have spent at least one year in India.
And also, the breaks for short intervals are allowed. No time of stay is considered in their case. The above example states that the classical notion of democratic citizenship, which was essentially linked with the territory of the nation-state, is gradually losing its relevance in the age of globalization.
Prior to the forces of globalization, the nation state was enjoying autonomy to confer citizenship rights to the individual. But now the state is no more the sole authority to define the nature of citizenship. With the emergence of age of globalization, different dimensions of citizenship rights are granted by number of international organizations, conventions, etc. The United Nations Convention on Migrants emphasizes the connection between migration and human rights. Thus, the demands of ethnic minorities in the large states the USA, the USSR and China, for example never found strong supporters in the UN, although the discriminations against these minorities can not be defended in any way in terms of Human Rights.
In the light of this history, it is easy to focus on the deficiencies alone and declare Human Rights and the UN organization as false pretences or charades. The three countries demanded that the UN would issue a resolution on military action in this area.
In the American media, President Bush and other high officials repeatedly said that these European dissenters were wrong, disloyal, etc. A few months after the official ending of the war on Iraq Novemberthe press reported American deaths in Iraq every day, bombing and retaliations from both sides and an appeal by President Bush on a series of countries with the leaders of Russia, France, Germany, Great Britain and so on visiting the President to send troops in order to install peace in the area.
Again, the unilateral attempts of the President were countered by these same countries with their recurring demand that the UN should be recognized as a mediating partner in this war: What I want to stress with this example is that, however virtual Human Rights may seem at times and however frail the power of the UN may look in some instances, history seems to indicate so far that they do count at other times and do play at the least a mediating role.
It is important to understand that the power of the UN is indeed fully dependent on the respect of all the member states. The organization has neither the money nor the military power to impose anything on its members. It can only stand for its authority and its function as a forum. Neither real military powers, nor terrorists can be made to submit to, or even respect this body. Hence, that this organization has impact regardless of its demonstrable lack of financial or military power is an intriguing phenomenon.
For me, it indicates that so far no power in the world feels invulnerable or strong enough to do away with this mediating organization.
However, neither guerrilla warfare e. These examples only offer data to sustain the thesis that no regime or government in the modern world, however powerful it seems from a materialistic perspective, is all-powerful or invulnerable as yet.
It is in that niche that the UN's symbolic power is operating at the international level. This does not mean that the forces that want to diminish the democratic rights of the citizen are not powerful; I only stress that they are not almighty.
Why this is so is not my topic. But that they have to deal with the opinion of the conscious consumer-citizen is a fact, I claim. Here is where I see an important role for the citizen in general, and for the civil servant in particular. In my view, most of the analyses about economic shifts can have a doomsday ring about them because they are stuck with old and partially obsolete categories of analysis.
Two major changes have occurred, in my opinion, at the level of the citizen: The western citizen is better educated and her or his higher qualifications and knowledge skills matter for the profit of the corporations. Although the factories for basic industrial production progressively move to low wage countries not only steel and textile, but also chips and serial productsthe design, the sale and the research is, in the present era, only sufficiently developed in the rich countries.
The gap of Third World countries will not easily be narrowed, because this would imply such elaborate facilities as a good societal and public administration, good schooling and a mentality of never ending research and development, all of which seem rather difficult to plan and develop in the short run.
Even if university output is forthcoming like e. At the same time, brain-drain from the better situated Third World countries towards the West is still a fact, and may be on the increase. To be sure I do not appreciate brain-drain as a positive good, since the unfairness of the distribution of wealth is unjust for the present generations and will continue to yield conflicts in the future. My only point is that in the present era the Western citizen has the bonus of education, which is for a lot of them a beneficial asset in the global job situation.
Since the traditional wage labor jobs are heavily under attack because they are either done much cheaper in other countries, or taken up by refugees and immigrants in the West: But a large portion of Western citizens is in a privileged position in the emerging knowledge society in comparison with their counterparts in the non-western countries e.
The citizen has become a consumer over the past half century. Mass production is a necessity for international corporations to survive. The production cycle is not easily controllable anymore, and shifts on the job market will be the rule rather than the exception in the future. But all these products of mass production will have to find their consumers, lest the system stops short. The consumer is more and more dependent on the corporations to acquire the goods.
The other side of this coin is, of course, that in this configuration the consumer is in a position of power: For the time being, in the political arena, this fact does not really seem to be perceived in all its potentiality by the political elite and common citizen alike: Furthermore, the citizen-consumer can take control over the production of basic goods food, energy in the rich north: Some of the Green parties are at least conscious of the global changes, but most of them want to share power in the present era in Belgium, France, Germany, etc.
Nevertheless, the power of self-determination and self-control that lies dormant in mass-consumership is tremendous: Indeed, the weak spot of the mass consumption system from the point of view of the producer and distributor is that consumption must by all means be continued. Keeping supplies in stock is costly, but generating products that the market will not buy is a nightmare for any firm in the present age and time. We have witnessed the dormant power in the hands of the consumer on some occasions: The corporations involved agreed to negotiate after a very short time, owing to the costs involved in stocking goods and the drop in direct profit for the stockholders.
Even the import of Cuban goods and the opening of regular tourist packages by European individuals and governments notably Danielle Mitterand meant a great difference for Cuba, notwithstanding the long term and severe boycott against that country by the USA. My point here is that the power implied by the consumer position in the present predicament of international capitalism in the mass-consumption perspective is substantial.
For the time being, mostly volunteers and social-cultural groups are stressing this point, but no great institutional structures stand for this line of thought. Governments, political parties and unions are still focusing mainly on the problems with control of the production and distribution aspects of economic life, when seeking to counterbalance international capitalist power.
Globalization and the Role of the Power of the Citizen - Toneelgroep de Appel
In yet another way, Western consumers have a dormant power in their hands. A considerable group of them differing according to the country they live: Finance ministers of the EU reckon that approximately one out of five citizens in Western Europe can live off the interests of their capital since the past decade communication of Minister Tobback of Belgium in But, apart from this particular problem it is a fact that more and more citizens are becoming shareholders.
Again, the potential power involved in this new type of ownership is not fully clear to them, although it is considerable. But the growth in consciousness with the small shareholders is slow.
One very recent incident illustrates this point: That is to say, I am speaking here of the social worker, the cultural middleman, the civil worker, the lower employees of private firms and of public offices. Even the teachers in schools and in adult education services are of crucial importance here. They can make the system work for the benefit and glory of the few mighty suppliers and finance groups, or for the population at large.
In their position lies a potentiality of information and of interaction which has the nature of a power relationship: But also, without appeal to them, the population at large will have more difficulties in knowing and defending their rights and their potential negotiation space with the producers and providers. In other words, the go-between may be used as a means to reach the potential clients by the corporations, but he is also a translator and an ally for the consumer since he is earning a living through this job.
Notwithstanding the growing direct sale of products and services through the internet, the go-between is and remains an important figure in the present global capitalist system. The fact that consumers are better educated than the workers class of a generation ago, because modern capitalism needs higher qualified employees, should certainly be recognized as an asset in this perspective: In still other words, the citizen of today may be less and less powerful as far as his status of co producer of goods and services is concerned Baumannbut can gain more control and develop a counterbalance in power by consciously using the potential dormant in the consumer position: The middle-persons have an important role in this structure and it would be foolish to consider them dispensable or superfluous.
The latter view stems from a production-focused perspective, which was so dominant in the economistic ideologies of the past two centuries, but is now obsolete.
The impact of globalization on identity and values of citizenship - المركز الديمقراطي العربي
To be sure, I only stressed one point of analysis in this short contribution, since that point is often forgotten in the literature. At least as important as this point, is the fact that in the information society of today the producer of knowledge may be differently powerful as producer than the industrial worker and capitalist. That type of analysis has been the subject of abundant studies most of all Castells A final example may illustrate the potential of such a shift in power consciousness once more.
For the first time in history, and through the development of the new information technologies, the audience can now communicate and interact directly and massively with the producer or provider.