Measures of national income and output - New World Encyclopedia
Gross National Income (GNI) is the income earned by a country's citizens and companies. Difference Between GNI and GDP Gross domestic product measures the income of anyone within a country's boundaries. though, is that it converts all goods and services in a country to what it would cost in the United States. Key Difference: GDP is used to calculate all the products or services that are Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and National Income are terms that are most by the United States in China, will count as GNP in the US, and GDP in China. National Income is the value of all the goods and services produced by the answer to What is the difference between gross domestic product (GDP), gross In the United States, National Income will typically be less than GDP for the.
Although some attempts were made to estimate national incomes as long ago as the 17th century,  the systematic keeping of national accountsof which these figures are a part, only began in the s, in the United States and some European countries. The impetus for that major statistical effort was the Great Depression and the rise of Keynesian economicswhich prescribed a greater role for the government in managing an economy, and made it necessary for governments to obtain accurate information so that their interventions into the economy could proceed as well-informed as possible.
Market value In order to count a good or service, it is necessary to assign value to it.
Difference between GDP and National Income | GDP vs National Income
The value that the measures of national income and output assign to a good or service is its market value — the price it fetches when bought or sold. The actual usefulness of a product its use-value is not measured — assuming the use-value to be any different from its market value.
Three strategies have been used to obtain the market values of all the goods and services produced: The product method looks at the economy on an industry-by-industry basis. The total output of the economy is the sum of the outputs of every industry.
Difference Between GDP and National Income | Difference Between | GDP vs National Income
However, since an output of one industry may be used by another industry and become part of the output of that second industry, to avoid counting the item twice we use not the value output by each industry, but the value-added; that is, the difference between the value of what it puts out and what it takes in.
The total value produced by the economy is the sum of the values-added by every industry.
The expenditure method is based on the idea that all products are bought by somebody or some organisation. Therefore, we sum up the total amount of money people and organisations spend in buying things. This amount must equal the value of everything produced. Countries with higher GNP often score highly on other measures of welfare, such as life expectancy.
However, there are serious limitations to the usefulness of GNP as such a measure: Measures of GNP typically exclude unpaid economic activity, most importantly domestic work such as childcare. This can lead to distortions; for example, a paid childminder's income will contribute to GNP, whereas an unpaid mother's time spent caring for her children will not, even though they are both carrying out the same activity.
GNP takes no account of the inputs used to produce the output. For example, if everyone worked for twice the number of hours, then GNP might roughly double, but this does not necessarily mean that workers are better off as they would have less leisure time. Similarly, the impact of economic activity on the environment is not directly taken into account in calculating GNP.
Comparison of GNP from one country to another may be distorted by movements in exchange rates. Measuring national income at purchasing power parity PPP can help to overcome this problem. The PPP theory uses the long-term equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their purchasing power.
Developed by Gustav Cassel init is based on the law of one price which states that, in an ideally efficient market, identical goods should have only one price. InKuznets stated: Distinctions must be kept in mind between quantity and quality of growth, between costs and returns, and between the short and long run. Goals for more growth should specify more growth of what and for what Kuznets The standard of living is a measure of economic welfare.
It generally refers to the availability of scarce goods and services, usually measured by per capita income or per capita consumption, calculated in constant dollars, to satisfy wants rather than needs.
Because the well-being that living standards are supposed to measure is an individual matter, per capita availability of goods and services in a country is a measure of general welfare only if the goods and services are distributed fairly evenly among people. Besides, just as Kuznets hinted, improvement in standard of living can result from improvements in economic factors such as productivity or per capita real economic growth, income distribution and availability of public services, and non-economic factors, such as protection against unsafe working conditions, clean environment, low crime rate, and so forth.
Disadvantage The major disadvantage of using GDP as an indicator of standard of living is that it is not, strictly speaking, a measure of standard of living, which can be generally defined as "the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people, and the way these goods and services are distributed within a population. World GDP per capita in Geary-Khamis dollars changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution.
Note the empty areas mean no data, not very low levels.
Difference between GDP and National Income
There are data for the years 1,, and Advantage All these items notwithstanding, GDP per capita is often used as an indicator of standard of living in an economy, the rationale being that all citizens benefit from their country's increased economic production. The major advantages to using GDP per capita as an indicator of standard of living are that it is measured frequently, widely, and consistently; frequently in that most countries provide information on GDP on a quarterly basis which allows trends to be spotted quicklywidely in that some measure of GDP is available for practically every country in the world allowing crude comparisons between the standard of living in different countriesand consistently in that the technical definitions used within GDP are relatively consistent between countries so there can be confidence that the same thing is being measured in each country.
Critique by Austrian economists Austrian economists are critical of the basic idea of attempting to quantify national output.
Frank Shostak quotes Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises: The attempt to determine in money the wealth of a nation or the whole mankind are as childish as the mystic efforts to solve the riddles of the universe by worrying about the dimension of the pyramid of Cheops. Shostak elaborated in his own criticism: The GDP framework cannot tell us whether final goods and services that were produced during a particular period of time are a reflection of real wealth expansion, or a reflection of capital consumption.
In reality, however, the building of the pyramid will divert real funding from wealth-generating activities, thereby stifling the production of wealth Shostak However, using these strictly economic statistics GNP, GDP as attempts to capture the standard of living trends and their mapping in any particular country, has serious problems.
Even more problematic is their use in assessing quality of life or "well-being" of the citizens, which is far from a purely economic measure. There are two reasons why these economic statistics tell little or nothing about the well-being of the society, even if taken on a per capita basis.
True, we can infer that if GDP or GNP per capita series in constant dollars grows within the short period of years, the standard of living may increase as well; but that is all we can say. As the Austrian economist Frank Shostak stated, as noted above, if any government starts building pyramids, GDP will be growing, yet—as the pyramids have no use for anybody—the standard of living will not Shostak The other reason is that we cannot compare or statistically infer anything regarding two or more environments that are independent from each other.
In this case, on the one hand is the economy, and on the other is sociology combined with psychology. While there are factors that affect both, there is not a correlation, let alone a causal relationship, between them.