Fluid dynamics and Bernoulli's equation
Fluid flow mean velocity and pipe diameter for known flow rate . The difference between total and static pressure represents fluid kinetic energy and it is called. The total energy of the fluid is the sum of the energy the fluid possesses due to its elevation (elevation head), velocity (velocity head), and static. Velocity and Pressure are inversely proportional to the Area of cross section of the body through which a fluid is flowing. consider figure 1: An ideal fluid(that.
View calculator where is: With some restrictions, Darcy equation can be used for gases and vapors.11th Class Physics, Ch 6 - Relation Between Speed & Pressure Fluid - FSc Physics Book 1
Darcy formula applies when pipe diameter and fluid density is constant and the pipe is relatively straight. Friction factor for pipe roughness and Reynolds number in laminar and turbulent flow Physical values in Darcy formula are very obvious and can be easily obtained when pipe properties are known like D - pipe internal diameter, L - pipe length and when flow rate is known, velocity can be easily calculated using continuity equation.
The only value that needs to be determined experimentally is friction factor. In the critical zone, where is Reynolds number between andboth laminar and turbulent flow regime might occur, so friction factor is indeterminate and has lower limits for laminar flow, and upper limits based on turbulent flow conditions.
If the flow is laminar and Reynolds number is smaller thanthe friction factor may be determined from the equation: Since the internal pipe roughness is actually independent of pipe diameter, pipes with smaller pipe diameter will have higher relative roughness than pipes with bigger diameter and therefore pipes with smaller diameters will have higher friction factors than pipes with bigger diameters of the same material.
Most widely accepted and used data for friction factor in Darcy formula is the Moody diagram. On Moody diagram friction factor can be determined based on the value of Reynolds number and relative roughness.
Lift is defined as the force acting on an airfoil due to its motion, in a direction normal to the direction of motion. Likewise, drag on an airfoil is defined as the force acting on an airfoil due to its motion, along the direction of motion. An easy demonstration of the lift produced by an airstream requires a piece of notebook paper and two books of about equal thickness.
Place the books four to five inches apart, and cover the gap with the paper.
Bernoulli’s Effect – Relation between Pressure and Velocity - Nuclear Power
When you blow through the passage made by the books and the paper, what do you see? Example 1 A table tennis ball placed in a vertical air jet becomes suspended in the jet, and it is very stable to small perturbations in any direction.
Push the ball down, and it springs back to its equilibrium position; push it sideways, and it rapidly returns to its original position in the center of the jet. In the vertical direction, the weight of the ball is balanced by a force due to pressure differences: To understand the balance of forces in the horizontal direction, you need to know that the jet has its maximum velocity in the center, and the velocity of the jet decreases towards its edges.
The ball position is stable because if the ball moves sideways, its outer side moves into a region of lower velocity and higher pressure, whereas its inner side moves closer to the center where the velocity is higher and the pressure is lower. The differences in pressure tend to move the ball back towards the center.
Example 3 Suppose a ball is spinning clockwise as it travels through the air from left to right The forces acting on the spinning ball would be the same if it was placed in a stream of air moving from right to left, as shown in figure Spinning ball in an airflow.
A thin layer of air a boundary layer is forced to spin with the ball because of viscous friction. At A the motion due to spin is opposite to that of the air stream, and therefore near A there is a region of low velocity where the pressure is close to atmospheric. At B, the direction of motion of the boundary layer is the same as that of the external air stream, and since the velocities add, the pressure in this region is below atmospheric.
The ball experiences a force acting from A to B, causing its path to curve.
Bernoulli’s Effect – Relation between Pressure and Velocity
If the spin was counterclockwise, the path would have the opposite curvature. The appearance of a side force on a spinning sphere or cylinder is called the Magnus effect, and it well known to all participants in ball sportsespecially baseball, cricket and tennis players.
Stagnation pressure and dynamic pressure Bernoulli's equation leads to some interesting conclusions regarding the variation of pressure along a streamline. Consider a steady flow impinging on a perpendicular plate figure There is one streamline that divides the flow in half: Along this dividing streamline, the fluid moves towards the plate.
Since the flow cannot pass through the plate, the fluid must come to rest at the point where it meets the plate.