Protein in Urine (Proteinuria) Causes, Symptoms, & Treatments - American Kidney Fund (AKF)
If your kidneys are damaged, protein can “leak” out of the kidneys into your urine. If I have albuminuria, does it mean I have kidney disease?. Learn about the symptoms, treatment and causes of protein in urine, also known urine can be a sign of nephrotic syndrome, or an early sign of kidney disease. Correlation of Urinary Foam with Proteinuria in Patients with Chronic Kidney of patients from our chronic kidney disease (CKD) clinics for urine protein and.
Proteins from the blood can escape into the urine when the filters of the kidney, called glomeruli, are damaged.
Sometimes the term albuminuria is used when a urine test detects albumin specifically. Albumin's function in the body includes retention of fluid in the blood. It acts like a sponge, soaking up fluid from body tissues.
Inflammation in the glomeruli is called glomerulonephritis, or simply nephritis. Many diseases can cause this inflammation, which leads to proteinuria.
Additional processes that can damage the glomeruli and cause proteinuria include diabetes, hypertension, and other forms of kidney diseases. Research shows that the level and type of proteinuria whether the urinary proteins are albumin only or include other proteins strongly determine the extent of damage and whether you are at risk for developing progressive kidney failure.
Proteinuria is also associated with cardiovascular disease. Damaged blood vessels may lead to heart failure or stroke as well as kidney failure.
If your doctor finds that you have proteinuria, do what you can to protect your health and prevent any of these diseases from developing.
Several health organizations recommend that some people be regularly checked for proteinuria so that kidney disease can be detected and treated before it progresses. A study sponsored by the National Institutes of Health determined that proteinuria is the best predictor of progressive kidney failure in people with type 2 diabetes.
The American Diabetes Association recommends regular urine testing for proteinuria for people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The National Kidney Foundation recommends that routine checkups include testing for excess protein in the urine, especially for people in high-risk groups.
Who is at risk?
People with diabetes, hypertension, or certain family backgrounds are at risk for proteinuria. In the United States, diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease ESRDthe result of chronic kidney disease.
In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the first sign of deteriorating kidney function is the presence of small amounts of albumin in the urine, a condition called microalbuminuria.
- Correlation of Urinary Foam with Proteinuria in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
- Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults
- Protein in urine
As kidney function declines, the amount of albumin in the urine increases, and microalbuminuria becomes full-fledged proteinuria. High blood pressure is the second leading cause of ESRD. Proteinuria in a person with high blood pressure is an indicator of declining kidney function.
If the hypertension is not controlled, the person can progress to full renal failure. African Americans are more likely than Caucasians to have high blood pressure and to develop kidney problems from it, even when their blood pressure is only mildly elevated. In fact, African Americans are six times more likely than Caucasians to develop hypertension-related kidney failure. These at-risk groups and people who have a family history of kidney disease should have their urine tested regularly.Kidney & Bladder Health : Treatment Options for Membranous Kidney Disease
What are the signs of proteinuria and kidney failure? Large amounts of protein in your urine may cause it to look foamy in the toilet. Also, because the protein has left your body, your blood can no longer soak up enough fluid and you may notice swelling in your hands, feet, abdomen, or face.
Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults | NIDDK
These are signs of very large protein loss. More commonly, you may have proteinuria without noticing any signs or symptoms. Testing is the only way to find out how much protein you have in your urine. What are the tests for proteinuria? Containers for collecting urine. Treatment usually includes medications and changes in diet. Medications that lower blood pressure can also significantly slow the progression of kidney disease causing nephrotic syndrome. Two types of blood pressure lowering medications, angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers ARBshave proven effective in slowing the progression of kidney disease by reducing the pressure inside the glomeruli and thereby reducing albuminuria.
Many people require two or more medications to control their blood pressure. In addition to an ACE inhibitor or an ARB, a diuretic—a medication that aids the kidneys in removing fluid from the blood—can also be useful in helping to reduce blood pressure as well as edema. Beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and other blood pressure medications may also be needed.
Statin medications may be given to lower cholesterol. People with nephrotic syndrome should receive the pneumococcal vaccine, which helps protect against a bacterium that commonly causes infection, and yearly flu shots. Blood thinning medications are usually only given to people with nephrotic syndrome who develop a blood clot; these medications are not used as a preventive measure. Nephrotic syndrome may go away once the underlying cause has been treated.
More information about treating the underlying causes of nephrotic syndrome is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Glomerular Diseases. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition Eating, diet, and nutrition have not been shown to play a role in causing or preventing nephrotic syndrome in adults. For people who have developed nephrotic syndrome, limiting intake of dietary sodium, often from salt, and fluid may be recommended to help reduce edema.
The Kidney & Urology Foundation of America
A diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may also be recommended to help control hyperlipidemia. What are clinical trials, and are they right for you? Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances.
Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical trials are right for you. What clinical trials are open? Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at www. References  Nephrotic Syndrome.
Accessed February 15, The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public.