How Does the Concentration of a Solution Affect Osmosis? | Sciencing
Apr 26, Osmosis is a process that occurs between two containers separated by a with the difference in solute concentration between the two sides. Oct 13, When a cell contains a lower concentration of solute than the area surrounding When the difference in concentrations on either side of the. Different concentrations of solute molecules leads to different concentrations of free about osmosis, we are always comparing solute concentrations between two to water and not solutes, osmotic pressure is proportional to the difference in.
Suppose an animal or a plant cell is placed in a solution of sugar or salt in water. If the medium is hypotonic relative to the cell cytoplasm — the cell will gain water through osmosis. If the medium is isotonic — there will be no net movement of water across the cell membrane. If the medium is hypertonic relative to the cell cytoplasm — the cell will lose water by osmosis.
Essentially, this means that if a cell is put in a solution which has a solute concentration higher than its own, it will shrivel, and if it is put in a solution with a lower solute concentration than its own, the cell will swell and may even burst. Chemical gardens demonstrate the effect of osmosis in inorganic chemistry.
Osmotic pressure As mentioned before, osmosis may be opposed by increasing the pressure in the region of high solute concentration with respect to that in the low solute concentration region. The force per unit area, or pressure, required to prevent the passage of water or any other high- liquidity solution through a selectively permeable membrane and into a solution of greater concentration is equivalent to the osmotic pressure of the solutionor turgor.
Osmotic pressure is a colligative propertymeaning that the property depends on the concentration of the solute, but not on its content or chemical identity. Osmotic gradient The osmotic gradient is the difference in concentration between two solutions on either side of a semipermeable membraneand is used to tell the difference in percentages of the concentration of a specific particle dissolved in a solution.
Osmosis: what is osmosis? (video) | Khan Academy
Usually the osmotic gradient is used while comparing solutions that have a semipermeable membrane between them allowing water to diffuse between the two solutions, toward the hypertonic solution the solution with the higher concentration. Eventually, the force of the column of water on the hypertonic side of the semipermeable membrane will equal the force of diffusion on the hypotonic the side with a lesser concentration side, creating equilibrium.
When equilibrium is reached, water continues to flow, but it flows both ways in equal amounts as well as force, therefore stabilizing the solution. Reverse osmosis Reverse osmosis is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solvent through a semi-permeable membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side, forcing it from a region of high solute concentration through a membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in excess of the osmotic pressure.
Forward osmosis Main article: Forward osmosis Osmosis may be used directly to achieve separation of water from a solution containing unwanted solutes. Let's just think about the problem. We know that the big particles can't diffuse from one side to another, but what's going to happen to the water molecules?
The water molecules on the left hand side, they're not going to be stopped. If they are bouncing in the right way, they can bounce from the left to the right, or they could move from the left to the right through one of these gaps. But what about the ones on the right side?
Well, if things are, if they're the just right conditions, if they're the just right conditions maybe this character could move through this, so you're definitely going to have water molecules going back and forth, but I'd argue that ones on the right hand side, there's a lower probability of water molecules from the right hand side moving to the left as from the left hand side moving to the right.
And why is that? There's all this interference that play from these big molecules that aren't able to diffuse. These are going to be bouncing around. Sometimes they're going to be even, sometimes you can imagine them even blocking, they're going to be blocking the approach to these openings.
If this membrane wasn't here, they wouldn't block the approach, they would just keep on going, but since that membrane is there, they might block it, or they might ricochet off, and while they ricochet off they might push on some water molecules, they might push on some water molecules going in this direction right over there.
So an argument can be made that these water molecules, some of them will still make it from right to left, but you have a lower probability of going from right to left as you have from going to left to right.
So because of this you would have a net inflow of water from this area where you have a low solute concentration. Remember the solute is the thing that's dissolved in the water.
In general, we always consider the solvent to be whatever there's more of. In this case, it's water, and water is probably the most typical solvent, and the solute is whatever there's less of. So the solute is dissolved in the solvent, and so we have a net migration of the water molecules from this solution that has a low solute concentration to one that has a higher solute concentration.
This phenomenon we call osmosis. We call this osmosis. There's other arguments for osmosis.
It's something that we've observed many, many, many times. If you put something that's used to fresh water, and if it has skin or it has membranes that allows water to pass through it, put it salt water.
How does osmosis relate to solute concentration?
The kind of famous things like slugs will not do well in the presence of salt because the water inside the slug will do exactly what is happening in this diagram. This mechanism that I just talked about, the molecules that cannot pass through the membrane, blocking the water molecules from going right to left, ricocheting off and maybe causing the ones that are on the right side to maybe move in this direction when they bounce into them.
Another possibility is many times the solute that's being dissolved in water has some charge associated with it.
Increasing the concentration of solute reduces the space available for water molecules, which reduces their numbers. This in turn increases the tendency of the water to flow into that side from the other side. To anthropomorphize slightly, the greater the difference in concentration of water molecules, the more they "want" to move across the barrier to the side containing the solute.
Sciencing Video Vault Scientists call this craving osmotic pressure or hydrostatic pressure, and it's a measurable quantity. Put a lid on a rigid container to prevent the volume from changing and measure the pressure needed to keep the water from rising while you measure the concentration of the solution on the side with the most solute. When no further change in concentration occurs, the pressure you're exerting on the cover is the osmotic pressure, assuming the concentrations on both sides haven't equalized.
Relating Osmotic Pressure to Solute Concentration In most real situations, such as roots drawing moisture from the ground or cells exchanging fluids with their surroundings, a certain concentration of solutes exists on both sides of a semi-permeable barrier, such as a root or cell wall.
Osmosis occurs as long as the concentrations are different, and the osmotic pressure is directly proportional to the concentration difference. Osmotic pressure doesn't depend on the size of the solute molecules or their composition. It only depends on how many of them there are.