Nine planes grounded by bomb threats in South America - Chilean authorities - Channel NewsAsia
Historically, Peru and Chile have not had ideal inter-state relations during the 19th century war'); he was arrested by the Chilean police. Chilean-Peruvian relations refers to the historical and current bilateral relationship between the .. Peruvian police stopped a group of nearly 2, people just 10 km from the border, preventing them from reaching their intended destination. Nine planes grounded by bomb threats in South America - Chilean authorities Police patrol with dogs near the LATAM airlines gates in Jorge.
Wars of Independence — [ edit ] See also: Spanish American wars of independence A series of excellent historical relations followed these times, especially during this period of independence from Spain. From the start of the Spanish conquest, the Incas and later their mestizo descendants kept up the struggle for independence from Spain in the viceroyalty of Peru. Nonetheless, Chile's remoteness greatly helped in making it become one of the first nations to declare independence with the so-called Patria Vieja.
Even as this first attempt was thwarted by the Spanish, the spirit of independence continued in Chile. Meanwhile, Peru remained as a stronghold for the remaining Spanish forces whom sought to form a force large enough to re-conquer their lost territories.
Chile–Peru relations - Wikipedia
Jose de San Martin's army which included some Chilean soldiers marched into Lima and proclaimed the independence of Peru. Soon after that, more reinforcements arrived from the Peruvian population and commanders such as Ramon Castilla began to prove themselves as excellent tacticians. Afterwards, several of these war heroes helped in forming good relations between the newly formed nations as they became prominent politicians in their nations.
After the wars of independence, the mutual concerns of both nations mainly revolved around consolidating their nations as sovereign states.
Peru and Chile found themselves in one of the friendliest of positions as they shared no territorial claims and also due to their historic trade. The cultures of both nations also kept close ties as the popular Peruvian Zamacueca evolved in Chile as the Cueca and in Peru as the yet-to-be named Marinera.
Still, economic disputes and greed would soon destroy that which was apparently one of the best international relations in the world at that time. Formation of Peru-Bolivia Confederation [ edit ] This section does not cite any sources.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Main articles: Nonetheless, the problems began when the leaders could not agree where the center of power of this union would be located. This action led to much controversy as the republican government of Peru sought to re-consolidate its power in a region that had belonged to them under the Spanish authorities.
This period of time was filled with much political intrigue, and soon a war erupted between Peru and Gran Colombia. The political turmoil in Peru stopped Bolivar's plans to reach Bolivia and keep expanding Colombia, but the warfare ended indecisively. The aftermath of this left Peru consolidated as a state, Bolivia formally recognized as a separate entity by Peru, and the beginning of the dissolution of Gran Colombia into the nations of the New Granada today, ColombiaEcuadorand Venezuela.
Even though Peru had recognized the independence of Bolivia, the national sentiment among the Peruvian society and its politicians greatly influenced the events that would soon take place. Agustin Gamarra and Andres de Santa Cruz were the leading proponents of a union between these two nations during the s, but each had different views on which nation would command the union.
A series of political conflicts in Peru would soon give Santa Cruz the chance to start his plans, and led an invasion of Peru claiming his intentions were to restore order. A series of Peruvians felt betrayed by their own government as the president and several leaders of congress allowed Santa Cruz to divide Peru into two nations: North Peru and South Peru. The Peru-Bolivian Confederation was soon formed, and several leading powers of the day Such as France and Great Britain and the United States recognized the nation's existence.
Politicians in South America would also form divided opinions about this new nation, but due to the political conflicts in the former states of the Greater Colombia, the main turmoil to this idea centered in Southern South America.
Among the most heavily involved in this situation was the Republic of Chile.
Famous Chilean leaders such as Bernardo O'Higgins and Ramon Freire openly favored the ideas of the newly self-appointed " Grand Marshal " Santa Cruz, but at the same time they opposed the regime that at that moment governed Chile.
The government in Chile was also deeply divided as to what they should do about this new nation. A series of Peruvians, including Agustin Gamarra and Ramon Castillasaw the situation as an invasion of Bolivia into Peruvian territory, and they went into exile in Chile in order gain support from the Chilean government. Moreover, Chile saw the creation of this new Peru-Bolivia government as a threat to Chilean independence and sovereignty due to the major influence that the combined territories of Peru and Bolivia were beginning to form in the world, and the many important Chilean figures exiled in Peru that sought to take over and change the current Chilean governmental administration.
Even though the Peru-Bolivian Confederation was still very young, the economic and infrastructure plans of Grand Marshal Santa Cruz had made a major impact in the economy of Bolivia, and the nation of South Peru also began to greatly benefit as a result of being free from the control of Lima and staying under the economic policies of Santa Cruz.
The only state from this union that did not truly benefit was North Peruand soon this state would begin to provide the greatest support for Chilean intervention into this situation. War of the Confederation — [ edit ] Main article: War of the Confederation What eventually led Chile to form a liberation army composed of Peruvians and Chileans was the invasion of Chile by Chilean exiles in Peru-Bolivia under the leadership of Ramon Freirewho was under the support of Andres de Santa Cruz.
The invasion of Freire failed, but the situation had escalated the bad relations between Peru-Bolivia and Chile. The first attack by the liberation army came without a declaration of war, and Santa Cruz was deeply offended by these actions that Chile was sponsoring. Nonetheless, in order to avoid war, Santa Cruz proposed a treaty of peace that would keep the relations between both nations at ease.
Seeing this as a chance at formally setting forth a cause for war, Chile sent their ultimatum to Santa Cruz among which the dissolution of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation was included. Santa Cruz agreed to everything but the dissolution of the confederation, and Chile thus declared war upon the confederation. At the same time, the Argentine Confederation saw this as a chance to stop the meddling of Santa Cruz in northern Argentina and they also declared war upon Peru-Bolivia.
The first battles of the war were heavily disputed by both sides, but they mainly came in favor of Santa Cruz. Argentina's first major attempt also became their last as the northern provinces, whom were sympathetic of Santa Cruz, began a major revolt against the war.
This left the combined forces of Chile and Peru alone in the war against Santa Cruz and his Peru-Bolivian troops some under command of former Chilean officers such as Ramon Freire and even a French officer named Juan Blanchet.
The first major attack of this liberation army also turned into a major disaster as the people of South Peru completely turned against this liberation force, and Santa Cruz persuaded the commander of these troops to sign a peace agreement confident that Chile would accept it as it stated along several other things that the debt of Peru to Chile would be repaid.
In Chile, the war at first met much opposition from the Chilean society as they did not approve of the war. Still, after the assassination of an important political figure in Chile, the situation became a matter of national pride. In the Chilean congress, the votes turned against the peace treaty and several of the military officers that had lost at this first battle were court martialed.
This time they fought and eventually won an important victory in the Battle of Portada de Guiasand thus the liberation force was able to enter the city of Lima. Lima and the majority of the rest of North Peru met the liberation army with much approval, and even appointed Agustin Gamarra as provisional president.
The victory was short-lived, though, as the liberation army retreated as they heard of a major army that would arrive soon under the command of Santa Cruz.
Apart from strong trade relations there is a strong human connection between the two countries as Peruvian migrants in Chile have made a good living by opening restaurants that serve Peruvian food in the Southern nation. At least for the time being, this international legal dispute has served as a catalyst for different political factions within Peru and Chile to harmonize their attitudes at least for the time being.
Chile held elections in late and former President Michelle Bachelet won a new presidential term that will begin in March As for Peru, political figures are also calling for unity: Former President Alan Garcia Perez and has tweeted that the government should allow for businesses to open at 11am Peruvian time on January 27 so that Peruvians can watch the verdict at home. In his January 12 tweet, he also called for the Peruvian flag to be raised across the nation in a sign of national unity.
At the executive level, President Ollanta Humala gathered former Peruvian heads of state this past Monday, January 20th, to discuss the maritime case. The Peruvian leader head of state met with leaders of major media outlets on January 13th to create a united national front before the verdict. This statement highlights the potential for worst case scenario regarding the future of Lima-Chile relations in the post-maritime dispute era which will commence on January How will a government react if the other ends up gaining control of the disputed territory?
Could an unfavorable verdict be enough of a justification to trigger a conflict between Peru and Chile? Inthe court ruled on a dispute over a paper mill built by Montevideo on the River Uruguay, which borders Argentina and Uruguay.
Additionally, in the ICJ passed a verdict on a dispute over an archipelago and maritime territory that was being disputed between Colombia and Nicaragua. If that was the case, entities like the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations or the Andean Community would have far more power over their member states than obviously is the case.
Certainly, the ICJ judges should not be influenced by how the verdict could and will it is likely to impact Peru and Chile, but rather should and must provide an objective and impartial analysis and judgment based on the information provided by Lima and Chile as well as their interpretation of the law.
With that said, it becomes the duty of policymakers and scholars to understand and explain how this dispute will impact bilateral relations and prevent worst-case scenarios i. The maritime dispute between Peru and Chile is complex with both sides believing that they are right in their demands. But this dispute also signifies a matter of national pride between two nations that, while they currently have strong economic and human relations, continue to have inter-state tensions and mistrust due to a 19th century conflict that has shaped their national identities particularly in the case of the nations that lost, namely Peru and Bolivia The respect, generally-speaking, of ICJ verdicts by other Latin American states and the context in which these are found, give hope that, whatever the verdict of this dispute, Lima and Santiago will respect it and the peaceful era it will most likely usher in.