Venus and Cupid – Europeana Blog
The particular theme of this painting is a playful treatment of a popular theme: Venus disciplining her son Cupid. According to the legends, Cupid has a bow and. Venus is ascribed as the mother of the minor deity Priapus (a fertility god how Venus fell in love with the mortal Adonis (either due to his beauty or Cupid's. himself of an even more cruel beating by pointing out a story that his father had a relationship between Venus and her daughter-in-law, and Cupid might prove.
The dolphin, often elaborated fantastically, might be constructed as a spout for a fountain. Pliny records a tale of a dolphin at Puteoli carrying a boy on its back across a lake to go to school each day; when the boy died, the dolphin grieved itself to death.
Demon of fornication[ edit ] To adapt myths for Christian use, medieval mythographers interpreted them morally. In this view, Cupid might be seen as a "demon of fornication ". It was appropriate to portray him naked, so as not to conceal his deception and evil.
At the request of his patronhe increased its value by deliberately making it look "antique",  thus creating "his most notorious fake". A madrigal by his literary rival Gaspare Murtola exhorted artists to paint the theme. A catalogue of works from antiquity collected by the Mattei familypatrons of Caravaggioincluded sketches of sleeping cupids based on sculpture from the Temple of Venus Erycina in Rome. Caravaggio, whose works Murtola is known for describing, took up the challenge with his Sleeping Cupida disturbing depiction of an unhealthy, immobilized child with "jaundiced skin, flushed cheeks, bluish lips and ears, the emaciated chest and swollen belly, the wasted muscles and inflamed joints.
His collection of Eclogues concludes with what might be his most famous line: Love conquers all, and so let us surrender ourselves to Love. After the Battle of Actiumwhen Antony and Cleopatra were defeated, Cupid transferring the weapons of Mars to his mother Venus became a motif of Augustan imagery. She gives safe harbor to Aeneas and his band of refugees from Troyonly to be abandoned by him as he fulfills his destiny to found Rome.
Iulus also known as Ascanius becomes the mythical founder of the Julian family from which Julius Caesar came. Augustus, Caesar's heir, commemorated a beloved great-grandson who died as a child by having him portrayed as Cupid, dedicating one such statue at the Temple of Venus on the Capitoline Hilland keeping one in his bedroom where he kissed it at night.
Cupid - Wikipedia
Roman historians criticize cupido gloriae, "desire for glory," and cupido imperii"desire for ruling power". In depicting the "pious love" amor pius of Nisus and Euryalus in the Aeneid, Vergil has Nisus wonder: Is it the gods who put passion in men's mind, Euryalus, or does each person's fierce desire cupido become his own God?
Ovid blames Cupid for causing him to write love poetry instead of the more respectable epic. Psyche lifts a lamp to view the sleeping Cupid.
It concerns the overcoming of obstacles to the love between Psyche "Soul" or "Breath of Life" and Cupid, and their ultimate union in marriage. The fame of Psyche's beauty threatens to eclipse that of Venus herself, and the love goddess sends Cupid to work her revenge. Cupid, however, becomes enamored of Psyche, and arranges for her to be taken to his palace. He visits her by night, warning her not to try to look upon him.
Psyche's envious sisters convince her that her lover must be a hideous monster, and she finally introduces a lamp into their chamber to see him. Startled by his beauty, she drips hot oil from the lamp and wakes him. She wanders the earth looking for him, and finally submits to the service of Venus, who tortures her. The goddess then sends Psyche on a series of quests.
Each time she despairs, and each time she is given divine aid. On her final task, she is to retrieve a dose of Proserpina 's beauty from the underworld.
She succeeds, but on the way back can't resist opening the box in the hope of benefitting from it herself, whereupon she falls into a torpid sleep. Cupid finds her in this state, and revives her by returning the sleep to the box. Cupid grants her immortality so the couple can be wed as equals.
Other iconographical attributes of the profane Cupid include a chaplet of roses on his head, hearts pierced by an arrow sometimes worn strung on a belt and sparrows or hares at his feet.
His Lucretian domination over the world through the impulse to procreate is signified by his carrying neither bow nor arrow, but standing on a globe, holding a fish and a flower. He functions as the catalyst for desire, often imposed as a punishment by Venus against her enemies, but he rarely stays to watch the action unfold or to participate in it further.
With the exception of the narrative of Cupid and Psyche, very little happens to him. However, this sense of his role being underwritten may explain why Cupid was such a literary and artistic success in early modern Europe. Certainly, the contradictions in his iconography, for example, his blindness and yet his accuracy as an archer, his youth and his power to tyrannise over the gods, his nakedness and his deceitfulness, fascinated poets and dramatists and were endlessly debated. Nevertheless, there were a number of brief narratives or scenarios which underpinned this iconography, and which would provide the plots for Renaissance plays and masques featuring Cupid.
Venus laments the absence of Cupid and issues a description of him, promising that whoever brings information will be rewarded with a kiss and anyone who brings him back as a captive will receive a more carnal reward. In some versions, Venus goes in search of Cupid herself and finds evidence of him in palaces, towns and in the countryside where he is roundly cursed as the cause of misery and betrayal.
Cupid takes his revenge by forcing Apollo to become enamoured of Daphne, whom he has infused with contempt for the god by piercing her with his leaden dart.
But Cupid is also famously the enemy of Mars. Dramatists rediscovered his enmity against women in the tragedies of Phaedra and Medea. A more recent Renaissance innovation was the identification of Cupid with Death himself.