Work life balance refers to an individual's ability to balance the commitments, goals relating to their paid work (e.g. working hours, expected outputs of the job, . particularly affected by time stress, compared to childless men and women. However, this relationship appears to be due to the type of work. revealed that there are positive relationship between work-life balance with supervisor . reducing females stress regarding household chores, job demands and .. This study provides a clear picture for HR practitioner to develop a policy. Work-life balance is all about finding ways to prioritize work while also experience job demands including work pressure and/or having to.
Family responsibility might be related to WFC when the employee experiences a very high work overload that impacts the employee's ability to perform even minor family-related roles. Such a situation likely affects WFC through the bi-directional nature of the two constructs. While no researchers have considered the relationship between these constructs in a full measurement model, Carlson and Kacmar[ 36 ] used structural model and found positive and significant paths between WFC and FWC.
Work-life balance: flexible working can make you ill, experts say
Its relation with WFC and FWC Work stress is usually conceptualized as work-role conflict, work-role overload, and work-role ambiguity[ 3738 ] House et al. Each has the potential to affect WFC. As uncertainty concerning work roles increase, employees use more mental energy to decipher it. This requirement may drain mental energy and attention needed for their family roles.
Carlson and Kacmar[ 36 ] found that role overload and role conflict were predictors of WFC, yet did not find significant results for role ambiguity. They found that strains and stresses are lower in family roles than in occupational and household roles among the married women.
These have more severe consequences for the psychological well-being of women than occupational strains and stresses. Strains predicted distress through role-specific stress, with strains deriving from contribution of role-specific stress.
The authors felt that self-role congruence in women leads to better mental health. Variables such as the size of family, the age of children, the number of hours worked outside the home, the level of control one has over one's work hours, flexible or inflexible work hours and the level of social support impact the experience of WFC and FWC.
However, these variables have been conceptualized as antecedents of WFC and FWC; it is also important to consider the consequences these variables have on psychological distress and well-being of the working women. Most of these studies revived are in western context; there is a scarcity of research in this area in the Indian context.
Hence, the researchers made an attempt to study various factors which could lead to WFC and FWC among married women employees. Thirty married working women were selected using simple random sampling technique from each setting, i. The women who were married at least for 3 years, living with spouse and engaged in work for at least 1 year were included in the study. The women with psychiatric and neurological illness with spouse suffering from physical or psychiatric and neurological illness were excluded from the study.
The participants are asked to indicate the extent to which they agree with each item. The responses range from 1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree. The coefficient alpha of the scale ranged from 0.
The scale was found to have good content, construct and predictive validity. With regard to number of children, Further, high FWC was found among those who were having one child, whereas less FWC was found among those not having children. The women working in hospital setting reported higher WFC compared to those working at school or industry setting.
FWC was more among the women working in industry, when compared to those working in school and hospital setting. However, non-significant relationships were found between age of the women, overall work experience, and number of children on WFC and FWC. In addition, non-significant relationship was also found between the age of the eldest child and WFC.
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Moreover, the age of the children was significantly positively correlated with FWC among the working women. The findings of the study support the earlier studies that age of the children is related to more WFC and FWC among married women employees. Some researchers used parental overload[ 33 ] which included number of children; others used variables such as family demand[ 43 ] in predicting WFC.
High levels of family responsibility cause increased time requirements and strain on the family, thereby interfering with the employee's work roles. In the present study, women working in hospital setting reported more WFC, whereas FWC was found to be more among those women working in industrial setting. Researchers have found that the number of hours worked per week, the amount and frequency of overtime, an inflexible work schedule, unsupportive supervisor, and an inhospitable organizational culture for balancing work and family increase the likelihood of women employees to experience conflict between their work and family roles.
According to Sharma,[ 17 ] the support and involvement of husband postively relates to lower levels of role conflict experienced by the married working women. Job-parent conflict was reported to be the most often experienced conflict among the women.
Survey in West showed that young women are expected to combine a career with motherhood. They have to provide a better life for their families, pay their children's tuition fees and plan a better future for them. In the present study, it is seen that the women working due to financial needs reported higher WFC when compared to those working for other reasons.
Schular[ 53 ] found that the financial need is the chief reported reason for women taking up employment. Phillips and Imholff[ 54 ] argue that many women take up job on compulsion, but it is the career which is extremely gratifying. In the present study, it is noted that only a few women had taken up employment for career. Sharma[ 55 ] reported that problems can arise if woman works for money.
In that case, woman needs to be careful not to bring home her frustration and unhappiness, which can affect family relationships. Future directions It is critical for work and family research to fully understand the conditions under which the married women employees experience conflict between their roles. There is a need to consider working environment, job satisfaction, family support and number of working hours in the future research.
Future studies should also continue to refine the methodology used in the area of work—family research. In order to attain in-depth understanding of one's work and family life, researchers who study work—family roles should include multiple perspectives such as job stress, quality of life, mental health, and work demands. In addition, it is necessary to explore multiple waves of data collection over a longer period of time to better understand the changing nature of work family roles over time.
Longitudinal studies need to be conducted to examine how the stages of life e. It is clear from the current study that married women employees indeed experience WFC while attempting to balance their work and family lives.
Thus, organizations need to formulate guidelines for the management of WFCs since they are related to job satisfaction and performance of the employees.
Like all studies, the current research has limitations. The sample in the present study is quite small; hence, the generalization of the findings is limited. Additional research is needed in other employment settings to explore the relationship between WFC and quality of life among married women employees.
Footnotes Conflict of Interest: National Publishing House; Employment of educated women in India; its causes and consequences. Ramanna A, Bombawale U. Transitory status images of working women in modern India. Indian J Soc Work. The effects of family responsibilities on the work commitment and job performance of non professional women.
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Work–Life Balance among Married Women Employees
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Role overload and health: The married on the wages labor force. Health Care Women Int. Multiple roles and health among older adults. Paper Presented at Academic Management Meeting. The development and validation of a multi-dimensional measure of work—family conflict. Sources conflict between work and family roles.
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Work-life balance: flexible working can make you ill, experts say | Money | The Guardian
Problems and pressures facing lone mothers in managment and professional occupations - A pilot study. Rapoport R, Rapoport RN. Work, family and the carrer. The career development of sucessful women. Folkman S, Lazarus RS. Stress, appraisal and coping. Finally, there is a high turnover rate among nurses in Japan, and many nurses do not return to work after resigning from a nursing post The potential nursing shortage has become a serious problem.
It is important to encourage current nurses to remain in their positions and continue their professional careers.
One way to contribute to this effort is to improve WLB. Aim This study was undertaken in several acute care hospitals in Japan to investigate the following topics concerning nurses: Subjects and Methods Participants and locations The selection criteria for the field research sites were as follows: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the three selected hospitals from November to December in Akita prefecture, Japan.
All nurses were recruited from the hospitals to avoid selection bias. We confirmed with each nursing department the numbers of units and nurses within each unit; we then distributed questionnaires to each unit. The unit managers subsequently distributed the questionnaires to the nurses.
Each questionnaire was put in an envelope before being collected in a box; this box was placed in the nursing office for 2 wk.
The office was locked when nursing staff were not there. The box had a small drop opening to collect the envelopes; once they were inside the box, the envelopes were not accessible or visible during the collection period because the box was sealed.
Over the 2 wk, the unit managers sent out reminders to the nurses to complete the questionnaire. Demographic data Based on previous research 89the following demographic data were collected: Thus, we asked nurses to report their actual work and private life proportions as well as their desired proportion.
We did not specifically define WLB time span e. WLB satisfaction was measured on a 4-point Likert scale from 1 not at all satisfied to 4 very satisfied based on Hancke et al. Asking about WLB satisfaction also allowed the satisfaction of each proportion to be assessed. The Japanese version of this scale has well-established reliability and validity 17 and consists of four items. The total score ranges from 4 to 13, and higher scores indicate greater job satisfaction.
Private life satisfaction was measured on a 4-point Likert scale from 1 not at all satisfied to 4 very satisfied. This was originally developed by the authors based on one of the items from the Job Satisfaction Scale: Scoring for each question and each domain ranges from 1 to 5 points, and a mean can be calculated for each domain.
Higher scores indicate a better QOL. The SOC was originally developed by Antonovsky 19and a Japanese edition has also been developed Higher scores indicate greater ability to cope with stress.