The same tradition of close and cordial teacher-student relationship was found in Buddhist System Also, under the Buddhist system of education, profoundly the Muslim system of education, built upcn c'emolishing the promovare-site.info and Buddhist. ROLE OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA . The Buddhist education system aimed at regaining our . Since Educational Institution ( Monasteries) was residential therefore the relationship between the teachers and the students . Before it was set to fire by Muslim invaders, it was a leading university for. come to China to teach Buddhism, which in that period, was regarded as an educational system, and not as a religion. Regretfully, about two . Islam because its emphasis was on moral principles and ethics, and I thought that this .. relationship between Buddha and ourselves is a teacher-student relationship, which is not.
It is not an exhaustive survey of the academic literature, but instead a brief summary of some explanations proposed to account for attainment differences among religious groups. Religion is certainly not the only reason for this variance; many other factors may play an equal or greater role, including economic, geographic, cultural factors and political conditions within a country or region.
The chapter begins with an historical look at ways in which scholars suggest that various religions have influenced education, especially the spread of literacy among laypeople. This section also explores how historical patterns sometimes help explain contemporary patterns in educational attainment. Next, this chapter considers hypotheses about how the cultural norms and doctrines of a religious group may affect educational attainment.
It concludes with a look at some leading theories for the stark differences in educational attainment between Christians and Muslims living in sub-Saharan Africa.
In many instances, the foundations of that infrastructure are based on facilities originally built by religious leaders and organizations to promote learning and spread the faith.
In India, the most learned men and sometimes women of ancient times were residents of Buddhist and Hindu monasteries. In the Middle East and Europe, Christian monks built libraries and, in the days before printing presses, preserved important earlier writings produced in Latin, Greek and Arabic. In many cases, these religious monasteries evolved into universities.
Religion and Education Around the World
Other universities, particularly in the United States and Europe, were built by Christian denominations to educate their clergy and lay followers. Most of these institutions have since become secular in orientation, but their presence may help explain why populations in the U.
Apart from their roles in creating educational infrastructure, religious groups were foundational in fostering societal attitudes toward education. Islam There is considerable debate among scholars over the degree to which Islam has encouraged or discouraged secular education over the centuries. Early Muslims made innovative intellectual contributions in such fields as mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, medicine and poetry.
They established schools, often at mosques, known as katatib and madrasas. Under Muslim rule, southern Spain was a center of higher learning, producing such figures as the renowned Muslim philosopher Averroes. These events included foreign invasions, first by the Mongols, who destroyed the House of Wisdom inand then by Christians, who pushed Muslims out of Spain in Some scholars argue that the educational decline began earlier, in the 11th and 12th centuries, and was rooted in institutional changes.
In particular, contends Harvard University Associate Professor of Economics Eric Chaney, the decline was caused by an increase in the political power of religious leaders who prioritized Islamic religious learning over scientific education. It became dominated by the idea that divine revelation is superior to other types of knowledge, and that religious education should consist of learning only what Islamic scholars had said and written in the past.
Columbia University history professor George Saliba writes: Christianity In the view of some scholars, the 16th-century Protestant Reformation was a driving force for public education in Europe. Protestant reformers promoted literacy because of their contention that everyone needed to read the Bible, which they viewed as the essential authority on doctrinal matters.
Driven by this theological conviction, religious leaders urged the building of schools and the translation of the Bible into local languages — and Reformation leader Martin Luther set the example by translating the Bible into German. The Scopes Monkey trial in further highlighted the rift between science and some branches of Christianity over the theory of evolution, a contentious relationship that endures even today.
These missionary activities, the scholars conclude, have had a long-lasting positive impact on access to schooling and educational attainment levels in the region. Research by Baylor University sociologist Robert D. As a result, they established schools to promote literacy wherever they went and translated the Bible into indigenous languages. Except where they were in direct competition with Protestant missionaries, Catholic missionaries concentrated on educating African elites rather than the masses, Woodberry observes.
And Nunn notes that Protestant missionaries placed greater stress than Catholics on educating women. As a result, Protestants had more long-term impact on the education of sub-Saharan African women. Asma, a professor of philosophy at Columbia College Chicago. From around the fifth century onward, Buddhist monasteries emerged as centers of education, not just for monks but also for laymen.
In India, the most famous of these educational centers — Nalanda, in what is now Bihar state — is said to have had 10, students from many different countries, and offered courses in what then constituted philosophy, politics, economics, law, agriculture, astronomy, medicine and literature.
When the Thai government introduced Western-style, secular education around the beginning of the 20th century, it used monastic schools as the vehicle for reaching the wider population.
Buddhistic Education System and Brahminical Education System
Hindu scriptures urge adherents to seek knowledge through dialogue and questioning, and to respect their teachers. To start with, the most authoritative Hindu scriptures are the Vedas, a word that comes from the Sanskrit root word vd, which means knowledge, Rambachan says.
University of Florida religion professor Vasudha Narayanan says Hindus regard two types of knowledge as necessary and worthwhile.
The first, vidya, is everyday knowledge that equips one to earn a decent and dignified life. The second, jnana, is knowledge or wisdom that brings awareness of the divine. This is achieved by reading and meditating on Hindu scriptures.
Historically, the caste system in India was a huge barrier to the spread of mass literacy and education. Formal education was reserved for elite populations. But in the seventh and eighth centuries, the vernacular language of Tamil began to be used for religious devotion in southern India, which led to greater access to all kinds of knowledge for a wider group of people. Later, in the 18th and 19th centuries, both secular and religious education came to be seen by Hindus as a universal right, and it gradually began to be extended to all members of the faith.
Judaism High levels of Jewish educational attainment may be rooted in ancient religious norms, according to some recent scholarship.
The Torah encourages parents to educate their children. This prescription was not mandatory, however, until the first century. Sometime around 65 C. A few years later, in the year 70, the Roman army destroyed the Second Temple following a Jewish revolt. Temple rituals had been a pillar of Jewish religious life. To replace them, Jewish religious leaders emphasized the need for studying the Torah in synagogues.
They also gave increased importance to the earlier religious decree on educating sons, making it a compulsory religious duty for all Jewish fathers. Over the next few centuries, a formal school system attached to synagogues was established. Jewish scholarship was enhanced in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the late sixth century, by the emergence of Talmudic academies of Sura and Pumbedita in what is now Iraq. In the late Middle Ages, centers of Jewish learning, including the study of science and medicine, emerged in what is today northern Spain and southern France.
Until the early 19th century, however, most education of Jewish boys was primarily religious. This intellectual movement sought to blend secular humanism with the Jewish faith and to encourage openness to secular scholarship among Jews. At the same time, they were strong proponents of reforming Jewish education by including secular subjects, such as European literature and the natural sciences.
This educational project often brought the reformists into conflict with more orthodox Jewish religious leaders.
Page Not Found
Guru was like an autocrat. So in the sense it was an autocratic system of education.
The seniority and pre-eminence of Guru always remained an admitted fact. On the other hand the Buddhist system was democratic in character.
It was not one man who ruled. Right from the time of admission up to the final stage when pupils left the Viharas everything was organised on democratic lines.Jiddu Krishnamurti - The Relationship between Teacher and Student
In the Brahmanic system the pupils had to stay with Guru for a period of 12 years from the date of admission. After the completion of the study they had the option to go back to their homes and live a worldly life. So household life formed an important aspect under the Vedic system. Renunciation of family life on the other hand was the very basis of the Buddhist system. Once the pupils left their homes and joined the Viharas for receiving education, except certain exceptional circumstances they were generally not allowed to go back to their homes even after the completion of their studies.
Welcome to impact journals
Having finished their education, they were required to go about and preach Buddhism. Thus under Buddhist system of education, an order of brotherhood was established by breaking tender and natural ties of family relations.
In the Brahmanic system the pupils were always under the close and constant supervision of their gurus.
Individual was the teaching unit. As there was no class teaching the relation between teacher and taught was very cordial. With the expansion of education, the contact between the teacher and taught was not so close in the Buddhist system. In the early Vedic period instruction was confine only to the young Brahmins to prepare them for their future vocation as priests.
Later on education was thrown open to Kshatriyas and Vaishayas. Thus the rigid caste system had its influence upon the progress of education. There was no distinction between man and man on the basis of their castes in Buddhist system of education. In the Brahmanic system much emphasis was given on Vedic study. The teachers were all Brahmins. It was considered then that only the Brahmins had the privilege to teach. Adequate attention could not be paid to the secular subjects as undue stress was laid on rituals, prayer, sacrifices etc.
But Buddhist education was not based upon Vedic study; even though Hindu religion formed an important part of the courses of studies.