The relationship between prostate specific antigen and cancer risk

the relationship between prostate specific antigen and cancer risk

Learn about the stages of prostate cancer, what the PSA test detects, and the PSA testing to screen for prostate cancer in average risk men. The chance of having prostate cancer goes up as the PSA level goes up. These drugs can also affect prostate cancer risk (discussed in Can The percent -free PSA (fPSA) is the ratio of how much PSA circulates free. Calculation of prostate-specific antigen related variables. Serum values The correlation between PSAD and prostate cancer risk factors are shown in [Table 5] .

What a High PSA Level Means if It’s Not Prostate Cancer

Some research has suggested that men taking aspirin regularly may have lower PSA levels. This effect may be greater in non-smokers. More research is needed to confirm this finding. If you take aspirin regularly for example, to help prevent heart diseasetalk to your doctor before you stop taking it for any reason. Some studies have linked the long-term use of cholesterol-lowering drugs known as statins, such as atorvastatin Lipitorrosuvastatin Crestorand simvastatin Zocorwith lower PSA levels.

the relationship between prostate specific antigen and cancer risk

Thiazide diuretics, such as hydrochlorothiazide HCTZare a type of water pill often used to treat high blood pressure. Taking a thiazide diuretic for years is linked to lower PSA levels. This could actually be harmful, if it were to lower the PSA from an abnormal level to a normal one, as it might result in not detecting a cancer. Special types of PSA tests Some doctors might consider using different types of PSA tests discussed below to help decide if you need a prostate biopsy, but not all doctors agree on how to use these other PSA tests.

PSA occurs in 2 major forms in the blood. One form is attached to blood proteins, while the other circulates free unattached.

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The percentage of free PSA is lower in men who have prostate cancer than in men who do not. This test is sometimes used to help decide if you should have a prostate biopsy if your PSA results are in the borderline range like between 4 and A lower percent-free PSA means that your chance of having prostate cancer is higher and you should probably have a biopsy. Using these cutoffs detects most cancers and helps some men avoid unnecessary prostate biopsies.

This test could be done instead of checking the total and free PSA, and it could give the same amount of information as the other tests done separately. This test is being studied to see if it provides the same level of accuracy. Tests that combine different types of PSA: Some newer tests, such as the prostate health index phi and the 4Kscore test, combine the results of different types of PSA to get an overall score that reflects the chance a man has prostate cancer.

These tests might be useful in men with a slightly elevated PSA, to help determine if they should have a prostate biopsy. The PSA velocity is not a separate test. It is a measure of how fast the PSA rises over time.

Normally, PSA levels go up slowly with age.

the relationship between prostate specific antigen and cancer risk

Some research has found that these levels go up faster if a man has cancer, but studies have not shown that the PSA velocity is more helpful than the PSA level itself in finding prostate cancer. PSA levels are higher in men with larger prostate glands. A higher PSA density indicates a greater likelihood of cancer.

the relationship between prostate specific antigen and cancer risk

PSA levels are normally higher in older men than in younger men, even when there is no cancer. A PSA result within the borderline range might be very worrisome in a year-old man but cause less concern in an year-old man.

These include prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia enlarged prostateand prostate cancer. As a man ages, his PSA levels naturally rise.

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However, PSA testing can be used to help diagnose prostate cancer, determine a prognosis for those who have prostate cancer, and track progression of the cancer or response to treatment. Staging prostate cancer Staging of prostate cancer is used to communicate how advanced the disease is and to help plan treatment. Stages range from 1 to 4, with the disease being most advanced in stage 4. There are a number of factors that go into this labeling.

This staging system is based on the size or extent of the tumor, the number of lymph nodes involved, and whether or not the cancer has spread or metastasized to distant sites or organs. Prognostic groups are further determined based on two additional factors: The role of PSA in staging PSA levels are just one factor used in determining the stage and prognostic groups of prostate cancer.

Some men who have prostate cancer do not exhibit elevated PSA levels, and some noncancerous conditions, like a prostate infection or benign enlargement, can cause high PSA levels.

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Stage 1 Stage 1 prostate cancer is characterized by a Gleason score of less than 6: The Gleason score compares cancer cells to normal cells.

The more the cells differ from normal cells, the higher the score and the more aggressive the cancer.

the relationship between prostate specific antigen and cancer risk

Like the PSA level, it is just one piece of the puzzle. Stage 2B By stage 2B, the tumor may have spread to the opposite side of the prostate gland, but it also may still be contained on one side.

If the tumor is still restricted to one half of the prostate, a Gleason score of 8 or higher or a PSA level of 20 or greater categorizes the cancer as stage IIB. Stages 3 and 4 By the time prostate cancer has reached stage 3 or stage 4, the cancer is very advanced.

the relationship between prostate specific antigen and cancer risk

At this point, the stage is determined by the extent of the spread of the cancer, and the PSA level and Gleason score do not factor in the staging.