Human impact on the environment - Wikipedia
People and Environment: What is the Relationship between Exploitation of and institutional innovations in natural resource management. Interactions Between Man and Environment: An Experimental College Course. Human beings and natural resources are closely interrelate to each promovare-site.info the one hand,human resouyrce is quite essentialfothe. Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes . The connection between emissions into the environment and the farming .. Natural hazards are excluded as a cause; however human activities can.
The value of wilderness is not lost on the American public, said David Hayes, U.
Department of the Interior. Americans rely on these for open space and recreational opportunities.
According to Hayes, the Interior Department manages more than million visits a year, reflecting a deeply rooted interest in our physical environment.
In the pharmacopoeia, the natural world is continuously offering compounds that are useful in medicine, and the search for biologically active compounds continues. Tom Lovejoy of the World Bank provided examples of this, including compounds obtained from slime molds from the banks of the Zambezi River that are effective in the treatment of tumors resistant to taxol; the immunosuppressant cyclosporin, which comes from a fungus; analgesics from tropical sea organisms and poison frogs; and lovastatin, which comes from the bacterial world.
Biodiversity is essential for guaranteeing the healthiness of humans. Another example involves horseshoe crabs, the blood of which is useful in detecting certain impurities in drugs. Brazilian scientists studying this snake 20 to 30 years ago uncovered the angiotensin system of blood pressure regulation. This research eventually led to the development of a class of drugs known as ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
Biological diversity becomes the ultimate integrator of all the things affecting living systems, said Lovejoy. An additional way in which biodiversity connects with human health is in reducing environmentally caused disease. There is an active field using biological systems, principally microbes, to clean up toxic waste problems in the environment, particularly PCBs, oil spills, and heavy metals.
Biological systems increasingly are being seen as potential means of cleaning up the water supply through the restoration of watersheds. According to Richard Rominger, deputy secretary of the U. Federal agricultural initiatives also aim to develop new technologies to protect the environment by shifting to lower-risk pesticides or pesticide alternatives and by conducting research on greenhouse gas and carbon storage that will affect global climate change.
At the local level, USDA provides technical assistance to help private landowners with conservation practices in order to promote sustainable development. Sustainability recognizes that farmers can be productive and profitable and still be wise stewards of their lands and the environment. Sustainability recognizes that farmers can be productive and profitable while being wise stewards of their land and the environment.
In earlyPresident Clinton proposed a conservation security program to further strengthen the economic—environmental linkage. By providing direct stewardship payments to farmers with comprehensive conservation plans, the program highlights the voluntary and locally led aspect of private land conservation efforts. This is far bigger than just a farm issue. Society benefits from a healthy environment and the plentiful food that it produces. One key provision of the program boosts funds to help producers with nutrient management.
For example, improperly managed animal feeding operations can contribute to water pollution, outbreaks such as Pfiesteria in the Chesapeake watershed, or excessive runoff from dairy operations.
For agriculture, greenhouse gas emissions present some challenges and perhaps some opportunities. Global Change Research Program has reported that the production of major crops could very likely increase with global warming, but there might also be a 20 percent increase in the use of pesticides, with an environmental impact that could be substantial. By sequestering carbon in agricultural soils, we could achieve more than just pulling carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and cutting the rate of global warming, said Rominger.
Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor and suspensions of water droplets and ice crystals seen as clouds. Many natural substances may be present in tiny amounts in an unfiltered air sample, including dustpollen and sporessea sprayvolcanic ashand meteoroids. Various industrial pollutants also may be present, such as chlorine elementary or in compoundsfluorine compounds, elemental mercuryand sulphur compounds such as sulphur dioxide [SO2].
The ozone layer of the Earth's atmosphere plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet UV radiation that reaches the surface.
The atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes. Layers of the Atmosphere[ edit ] Principal layers[ edit ] Earth's atmosphere can be divided into five main layers.
Environment: Interrelationship between human beings and natural resources
These layers are mainly determined by whether temperature increases or decreases with altitude. From highest to lowest, these layers are: The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere extends from the exobase upward, mainly composed of hydrogen and helium.
The top of the thermosphere is the bottom of the exosphere, called the exobase. It is the layer where most meteors burn up upon entering the atmosphere. The troposphere is mostly heated by transfer of energy from the surface, so on average the lowest part of the troposphere is warmest and temperature decreases with altitude.
The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere. Other layers Within the five principal layers determined by temperature are several layers determined by other properties. The ozone layer is contained within the stratosphere. It forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere.
The homosphere and heterosphere: The homosphere includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere.
Air pollution is a major threat to population health. Urban trees sequester pollutants and, even though the effect may be relatively small, given the severity of the problem it may still have some public-health implications. The evidence around the effects of natural environments on health and well-being is steadily increasing. Several pathways and mechanisms are suggested, such as health services through functional ecosystems, early life exposure to biodiverse microbiota, which is important for the immune-system development, and sensory exposure, which has direct neurobiological impact supporting cognitive development and stress resilience.
Support for several pathways is at hand that shows lower mortality rates and prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, healthier pregnancy outcomes, reduced health inequalities, and improved mental health in urban areas with greater amounts of green and blue space. Altogether, the interactions between healthy natural environments and healthy people are multiple and complex, and require interdisciplinary attention and action for full understanding and resilient development of both nature and human beings.
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