Aristotle | Biography, Contributions, & Facts | promovare-site.info
Aristotle: Aristotle, ancient Greek philosopher and scientist who was one of the greatest Plato (left) and Aristotle, detail from School of Athens, fresco by Raphael Within the Academy, however, relations seem to have remained cordial. Apr 2, Aristotle maintained a relationship with Greek philosopher Plato, himself a student of Socrates, and his academy for two decades. Plato died in. The relation of "present in" or "being in" to which Plato recurs. is inherited by A cladistic analysis of Aristotle's animal groups in the Historia animalium.
This divergence has had the unfortunate effect of tending to hide from English-speaking readers that Plato is taking over a straightforward notion from his predecessor. It is also possible to understand sympathetically the claim that forms have a greater reality than sensible particulars. The claim is certainly not that the sensible realm fails to exist or that it exists only partially or incompletely. Rather, sensibles are simply not ontologically or explanatorily basic: It is easy to multiply examples in the spirit of Plato to illustrate that adequate accounts of many of the fundamental entities he is interested in cannot be given in terms of sensible particulars or sensible properties.
If someone who wishes to define beauty points at Helenhe points at a thing both beautiful physically and not beautiful perhaps morally.
Equally, if he specifies a sensible property like the gilded, he captures together things that are beautiful and things that are not. To understand beauty properly, one needs to capture something that is simply beautiful, however that is to be construed. The middle dialogues do not undertake to help the reader with this task. Notice finally that because Plato was concerned with moral and aesthetic properties such as justice, beauty, and goodness, the Anaxagorean interpretation of participation—the idea that sensible composites are made up of physical portions of the fundamental entities—was not available to him.
There is no qualitatively identical material constituent that a lyre gains as its sound becomes more beautiful and that Achilles loses as he ages.
Each form is approximated by the sensible particulars that display the property in question. Thus, Achilles and Helen are imperfect imitations of the Beautifulwhich itself is maximally beautiful. Unlike Helen, the form of the Beautiful cannot be said to be both beautiful and not beautiful—similarly for Justice, Equality, and all the other forms.
Greenness does not exhibit hue; generosity has no one to whom to give; largeness is not a gigantic object. Moreover, it is problematic to require forms to exemplify only themselves, because there are properties, such as being and unity, that all things, including all forms, must exhibit. So Largeness must have a share of Being to be anything at all, and it must have a share of Unity to be a single form.
Plato was not unaware of the severe difficulties inherent in the super-exemplification view; indeed, in the Parmenides and the Sophist he became the first philosopher to demonstrate these problems. The first part of the Parmenides depicts the failure of the young Socrates to maintain the super-exemplification view of the forms against the critical examination of the older philosopher Parmenides.
Since what Socrates there says about forms is reminiscent of the assertions of the character Socrates in the middle dialogues SymposiumPhaedoand Republic, the exchange is usually interpreted as a negative assessment by Plato of the adequacy of his earlier presentation. Those who consider the first part of the Parmenides in isolation tend to suppose that Plato had heroically come to grips with the unviability of his theory, so that by his late period he was left with only dry and uninspiring exercises, divorced from the exciting program of the great masterpieces.
This suggests that Plato believed that the theory of forms could be developed in a way that would make it immune to the objections raised against the super-exemplification view. Forms as genera and species Successful development of the theory of forms depended upon the development of a distinction between two kinds of predication.
There are ordinary predications about the forms, which also state that the forms in question display properties. This special predication is closely approximated in modern classifications of animals and plants according to a biological taxonomy.
Understood as a special predication, however, the assertion is false, because it is false that being just is part of what it is to be Socrates there is no such thing as what it is to be Socrates. But when treated as a special predication it is true, since part of what it is to be a human is to be a vertebrate. Self-predication sentences are now revealed as trivial but true: Plato was interested in special predication as a vehicle for providing the real definitions that he had been seeking in earlier dialogues.
When one knows in this way what Justice itself really is, one can appreciate its relation to other entities of the same kind, including how it differs from the other virtues, such as Bravery, and whether it is really the whole of Virtue or only a part of it.
By means of special predication it is possible to provide an account of each fundamental nature. This is because it must be the case that either B appears above A in a correct genus-species classification or it does not. Moreover, since forms do not function by being exemplars of themselves only, there is nothing to prevent their having other properties, such as being and unity, as appropriate.
As Plato expresses it, all forms must participate in Being and Unity. The technical works stress and develop the idea which is hinted at in the early Euthyphro that forms should be understood in terms of a genus-species classification.
They develop a schema that, with modifications of course, went on to be productive in the work of Aristotle and many later researchers. Thus, 1 the early, or Socratic, dialogues represent conversations in which Socrates tests others on issues of human importance without discussing metaphysics; 2 the middle dialogues, or literary masterpieces, typically contain views originating with Plato on human issues, together with a sketch of a metaphysical position presented as foundational; and 3 the late dialogues, or technical studies, treat this metaphysical position in a fuller and more direct way.
There are also some miscellaneous works, including letters, verses attributed to Plato, and dialogues of contested authenticity. The early dialogues serve well as an introduction to the corpus. They are short and entertaining and fairly accessible, even to readers with no background in philosophy. Indeed, they were probably intended by Plato to draw such readers into the subject. In them, Socrates typically engages a prominent contemporary about some facet of human excellence virtue that he is presumed to understand, but by the end of the conversation the participants are reduced to aporia.
The discussion often includes as a core component a search for the real definition of a key term. One way of reading the early dialogues is as having the primarily negative purpose of showing that authority figures in society do not have the understanding needed for a good human life the reading of the Skeptics in the Hellenistic Age. Yet there are other readings according to which the primary purpose is to recommend certain views.
In Hellenistic times the Stoics regarded emphasis on the paramount importance of virtue, understood as a certain kind of knowledgeas the true heritage of Socrates, and it became foundational for their school.
Such episodes are intended to disabuse the naive, immature, or complacent reader of the comfortable conviction that he—or some authority figure in his community—already understands the deep issues in question and to convince him of the need for philosophical reflection on these matters. Each of the other works in this group represents a particular Socratic encounter.
In the Charmides, Socrates discusses temperance and self-knowledge with Critias and Charmides; at the fictional early date of the dialogue, Charmides is still a promising youth. Socrates; King, Martin Luther, Jr. Courtesy of Northwestern University The Cratylus which some do not place in this group of works discusses the question of whether names are correct by virtue of convention or nature. The Crito shows Socrates in prison, discussing why he chooses not to escape before the death sentence is carried out.
The dialogue considers the source and nature of political obligation. The Euthydemus shows Socrates among the eristics those who engage in showy logical disputation. Socrates and Euthyphro agree that what they seek is a single form, present in all things that are pious, that makes them so. Socrates suggests that if Euthyphro could specify what part of justice piety is, he would have an account. The more elaborate Gorgias considers, while its Sophist namesake is at Athens, whether orators command a genuine art or merely have a knack of flattery.
Socrates holds that the arts of the legislator and the judge address the health of the soul, which orators counterfeit by taking the pleasant instead of the good as their standard.
Discussion of whether one should envy the man who can bring about any result he likes leads to a Socratic paradox: In the Hippias Minor, discussion of Homer by a visiting Sophist leads to an examination by Socrates, which the Sophist fails, on such questions as whether a just person who does wrong on purpose is better than other wrongdoers.
The Ion considers professional reciters of poetry and develops the suggestion that neither such performers nor poets have any knowledge. The interlocutors in the Laches are generals. One of them, the historical Laches, displayed less courage in the retreat from Delium during the Peloponnesian War than the humble foot soldier Socrates.
Likewise, after the fictional date of the dialogue, another of the generals, Nicias, was responsible for the disastrous defeat of the Sicilian expedition because of his dependence on seers. Here the observation that the sons of great men often do not turn out well leads to an examination of what courage is. The Lysis is an examination of the nature of friendship; the work introduces the notion of a primary object of love, for whose sake one loves other things.
The Menexenus purports to be a funeral oration that Socrates learned from Aspasiathe mistress of Pericles himself celebrated for the funeral oration assigned to him by Thucydidesone of the most famous set pieces of Greek antiquity. This work may be a satire on the patriotic distortion of history. The Meno takes up the familiar question of whether virtue can be taught, and, if so, why eminent men have not been able to bring up their sons to be virtuous.
How is it possible to search either for what one knows for one already knows it or for what one does not know and so could not look for? In many middle period dialogues, such as the Phaedo, Republic and Phaedrus Plato advocates a belief in the immortality of the soul, and several dialogues end with long speeches imagining the afterlife.
More than one dialogue contrasts knowledge and opinion, perception and realitynature and custom, and body and soul. Several dialogues tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the musesand is not rational.
He speaks approvingly of this, and other forms of divine madness drunkenness, eroticism, and dreaming in the Phaedrus a—cand yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer's great poetry, and laughter as well. In IonSocrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic.
The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer 's Iliad functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: Socrates and his company of disputants had something to say on many subjects, including politics and art, religion and science, justice and medicine, virtue and vice, crime and punishment, pleasure and pain, rhetoric and rhapsody, human nature and sexuality, as well as love and wisdom.
Platonic realism "Platonism" is a term coined by scholars to refer to the intellectual consequences of denying, as Plato's Socrates often does, the reality of the material world. In several dialogues, most notably the Republic, Socrates inverts the common man's intuition about what is knowable and what is real.
While most people take the objects of their senses to be real if anything is, Socrates is contemptuous of people who think that something has to be graspable in the hands to be real.
In other words, such people live without the divine inspiration that gives him, and people like him, access to higher insights about reality.
Socrates' idea that reality is unavailable to those who use their senses is what puts him at odds with the common man, and with common sense. Socrates says that he who sees with his eyes is blind, and this idea is most famously captured in his Allegory of the Caveand more explicitly in his description of the divided line. The Allegory of the Cave begins Republic 7. Socrates says in the Republic that people who take the sun-lit world of the senses to be good and real are living pitifully in a den of evil and ignorance.
Socrates admits that few climb out of the den, or cave of ignorance, and those who do, not only have a terrible struggle to attain the heights, but when they go back down for a visit or to help other people up, they find themselves objects of scorn and ridicule. According to Socrates, physical objects and physical events are "shadows" of their ideal or perfect forms, and exist only to the extent that they instantiate the perfect versions of themselves. Just as shadows are temporary, inconsequential epiphenomena produced by physical objects, physical objects are themselves fleeting phenomena caused by more substantial causes, the ideals of which they are mere instances.
For example, Socrates thinks that perfect justice exists although it is not clear where and his own trial would be a cheap copy of it. The Allegory of the Cave often said by scholars to represent Plato's own epistemology and metaphysics is intimately connected to his political ideology often said to also be Plato's ownthat only people who have climbed out of the cave and cast their eyes on a vision of goodness are fit to rule.
Socrates claims that the enlightened men of society must be forced from their divine contemplations and be compelled to run the city according to their lofty insights. Thus is born the idea of the " philosopher-king ", the wise person who accepts the power thrust upon him by the people who are wise enough to choose a good master. This is the main thesis of Socrates in the Republic, that the most wisdom the masses can muster is the wise choice of a ruler. Theory of Forms The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas typically refers to the belief that the material world as it seems to us is not the real world, but only an "image" or "copy" of the real world.
Francesco Patrizi (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
In some of Plato's dialogues, this is expressed by Socrates, who spoke of forms in formulating a solution to the problem of universals. That is, they are universals. In other words, Socrates was able to recognize two worlds: Platonic epistemology Many have interpreted Plato as stating—even having been the first to write—that knowledge is justified true beliefan influential view that informed future developments in epistemology.
And this theory may again be seen in the Meno, where it is suggested that true belief can be raised to the level of knowledge if it is bound with an account as to the question of "why" the object of the true belief is so Meno 97d—98a.
That the modern theory of justified true belief as knowledge which Gettier addresses is equivalent to Plato's is accepted by some scholars but rejected by others. Socrates elicits a fact concerning a geometrical construction from a slave boy, who could not have otherwise known the fact due to the slave boy's lack of education.
The knowledge must be present, Socrates concludes, in an eternal, non-experiential form. In other dialogues, the SophistStatesmanRepublicand the ParmenidesPlato himself associates knowledge with the apprehension of unchanging Forms and their relationships to one another which he calls "expertise" in Dialecticincluding through the processes of collection and division.
In other words, if one derives one's account of something experientially, because the world of sense is in flux, the views therein attained will be mere opinions. And opinions are characterized by a lack of necessity and stability. On the other hand, if one derives one's account of something by way of the non-sensible forms, because these forms are unchanging, so too is the account derived from them.
That apprehension of forms is required for knowledge may be taken to cohere with Plato's theory in the Theaetetus and Meno. Because these doctrines are not spoken directly by Plato and vary between dialogues, they cannot be straightforwardly assumed as representing Plato's own views.
These correspond to the "appetite" part of the soul. These correspond to the "spirit" part of the soul. These correspond to the "reason" part of the soul and are very few. In the TimaeusSocrates locates the parts of the soul within the human body: He describes the catfishelectric rayand frogfish in detail, as well as cephalopods such as the octopus and paper nautilus.
His description of the hectocotyl arm of cephalopods, used in sexual reproduction, was widely disbelieved until the 19th century. For Aristotle, accidents, like heat waves in winter, must be considered distinct from natural causes. He was thus critical of Empedocles's materialist theory of a "survival of the fittest" origin of living things and their organs, and ridiculed the idea that accidents could lead to orderly results.
He was correct in these predictions, at least for mammals: Aristotle did not do experiments in the modern sense. It does not result in the same certainty as experimental science, but it sets out testable hypotheses and constructs a narrative explanation of what is observed.
In this sense, Aristotle's biology is scientific. Among these correct predictions are the following. Brood size decreases with adult body mass, so that an elephant has fewer young usually just one per brood than a mouse. Lifespan increases with gestation periodand also with body mass, so that elephants live longer than mice, have a longer period of gestation, and are heavier.
As a final example, fecundity decreases with lifespan, so long-lived kinds like elephants have fewer young in total than short-lived kinds like mice.
Plato | Life, Philosophy, & Works | promovare-site.info
Scala naturae Aristotle recorded that the embryo of a dogfish was attached by a cord to a kind of placenta the yolk saclike a higher animal; this formed an exception to the linear scale from highest to lowest. His system had eleven grades of animal, from highest potential to lowest, expressed in their form at birth: Animals came above plantsand these in turn were above minerals.
Those with blood were divided into the live-bearing mammalsand the egg-laying birdsreptilesfish.