Projection and Introjection
In the course of maturation, Klein believed that the infant introjected both "bad" and "good" objects, and that through processes of progressive internalization. Object relations theory is an offshoot of psychoanalytic theory that emphasizes . Introjection is the mental fantasy through which the infant takes in something. Splitting, projection, and introjection are psychological mechanisms that .. As object relations are poorly integrated, the reversals of the enactment of self- and.
The effect of introjection on object relations is equally important. It comes to form a focal point in the ego and makes for cohesiveness of the ego. The introjection of the good breast provides a location where one can hide from persecution, an early step in developing a capacity to self-soothe. Ogden  identifies four functions that projective identification may serve.
As in the traditional Kleinian model, it serves as a defense. Projective identification serves as a mode of communication. The paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions occur in the pre-oedipal, oral phase of development.
In contrast to Fairbairn and later Guntrip,  Klein believed that both good and bad objects are introjected by the infant, the internalization of good object being essential to the development of healthy ego function. Paranoid-schizoid position[ edit ] The paranoid-schizoid position is characterized by part object relationships. Part objects are a function of splitting, which takes place in phantasy.
At this developmental stage, experience can only be perceived as all good or all bad. As part objects, it is the function that is identified by the experiencing self, rather than whole and autonomous others. The hungry infant desires the good breast who feeds it. Should that breast appear, it is the good breast. If the breast does not appear, the hungry and now frustrated infant in its distress, has destructive phantasies dominated by oral aggression towards the bad, hallucinated breast.
Projection is an attempt to eject the bad in order to control through omnipotent mastery. Splitting is never fully effective, according to Klein, as the ego tends towards integration. The splitting and part object relations that characterize the earlier phase are succeeded by the capacity to perceive that the other who frustrates is also the one who gratifies.
Schizoid defenses are still in evidence, but feelings of guilt, grief, and the desire for reparation gain dominance in the developing mind. In the depressive position, the infant is able to experience others as whole, which radically alters object relationships from the earlier phase. It is only in the depressive position that polar qualities can be seen as different aspects of the same object.
In a development which Grotstein terms the "primal split", : With the awareness of the primal split, a space is created in which the symbol, the symbolized, and the experiencing subject coexist. History, subjectivity, interiority, and empathy all become possible.
In fact or phantasy, one now realizes the capacity to harm or drive away a person who one ambivalently loves. The defenses characteristic of the depressive position include the manic defenses, repression and reparation.
The manic defenses are the same defenses evidenced in the paranoid-schizoid position, but now mobilized to protect the mind from depressive anxiety. As the depressive position brings about an increasing integration in the ego, earlier defenses change in character, becoming less intense and allow increasing awareness of psychic reality.
- Object relations theory
- Projective Identification and Introjection
- Projection and Introjection
Unconscious guilt for destructive phantasies arises in response to the continuing love and attention provided by caretakers. These feelings of guilt and distress now enter as a new element into the emotion of love. They become an inherent part of love, and influence it profoundly both in quality and quantity.
Omnipotence is lessened, which corresponds to a decrease in guilt and the fear of loss.
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Previously, extended absences of the object the good breast, the mother was experienced as persecutory, and, according to the theory of unconscious phantasythe persecuted infant phantisizes destruction of the bad object. The good object who then arrives is not the object which did not arrive. Likewise, the infant who destroyed the bad object is not the infant who loves the good object. In phantasy, the good internal mother can be psychically destroyed by the aggressive impulses.
It is crucial that the real parental figures are around to demonstrate the continuity of their love. In this way, the child perceives that what happens to good objects in phantasy does not happen to them in reality. Psychic reality is allowed to evolve as a place separate from the literalness of the physical world. Through repeated experience with good enough parenting, the internal image that the child has of external others, that is the child's internal object, is modified by experience and the image transforms, merging experiences of good and bad which becomes more similar to the real object e.
In Freudian terms, the pleasure principle is modified by the reality principle. Melanie Klein saw this surfacing from the depressive position as a prerequisite for social life. Moreover, she viewed the establishment of an inside and an outside world as the start of interpersonal relationships. Klein argued that people who never succeed in working through the depressive position in their childhood will, as a result, continue to struggle with this problem in adult life.
The guilt is there because of a lack of differentiation between phantasy and reality.
Internal objects - melanie klein trust
It also functions as a defense mechanism to defend the self against unbearable feelings of sadness and sorrow, and the internal object of the loved one against the unbearable rage of the self, which, it is feared, could destroy the internal object forever. Further thinking regarding the positions[ edit ] Wilfred Bion articulates the dynamic nature of the positions, a point emphasised by Thomas Ogdenand expanded by John Steiner in terms of '"The equilibrium between the paranoid-schizoid and the depressive positions"'.
Grotstein, following Bion, also hypothesizes a transcendent position which emerges following attainment of the depressive position.
This aspect of both Ogden and Grotstein's work remains controversial for many within classical object relations theory. Death drive[ edit ] Sigmund Freud developed the concept object relation to describe or emphasize that bodily drives satisfy their need through a medium, an object, on a specific focus. The central thesis in Melanie Klein 's object relations theory was that objects play a decisive role in the development of a subject and can be either part-objects or whole-objects, i.
Consequently, both a mother or just the mother's breast can be the focus of satisfaction for a drive.
Furthermore, according to traditional psychoanalysis, there are at least two types of drives, the libido mythical counterpart: Erosand the death drive, mortido mythical counterpart: Thus, the objects can be receivers of both love and hatethe affective effects of the libido and the death drive. Ronald Fairbairn's Six Ego Positions[ edit ] Fairbairn posited six ego positions or inner voices, or 3 pairs: This is the part of the inner world that object relations therapists try to expand and grow.
The Antilibidinal Ego relating to the Bad Object, is the depressed, angry or hopeless inner child relating to the rejecting or neglectful inner parent. Whenever someone speaks in a tantrum-like way they are speaking from the Antilibidinal Ego, and they are speaking to the Bad Object.
Whenever someone is overly critical and harshly judgmental they are speaking from the Bad Object part of their personality, and are speaking to the Antilibidinal Ego hopeless inner child. It is the way in which one relates to social reality that matters.
Psychoanalysis - Melanie Klein And Object Relations
In the first year of life introjection and splitting are dominant; the child is governed by the death drivewhich is the drive that emerges as a response to the frustration in the face of the impossibility of going back into the enclosed space and time of the womb in which all that the organism needs is supplied without the organism having to make any effort to obtain it. Resultantly the child recognizes the external world as divided within itself and populated by good and bad objects which are not good and bad in-themselves but become good or bad in relation to the other objects.
Projective identification is another defence mechanism the child uses to cope with the difficulties of life. With projective identificationto protect the me and the internal good objects from a possible attack from the external bad object, the child projects the internal bad objects onto the external good object.
The child confuses the external good objects, external bad objects, internal good objects, and internal bad objects. To cope with this difficult situation the child projects unities onto the external world and makes no distinction between the good and the bad.
This means that the child has passed from the state of being governed by the death drive, to the state of being governed by the life drive. In the third stage of development there is the depressive position.
With the depressive position the child feels guilty for attacking not only the good object but also the bad object in the paranoid-schizoid position of introjection and projective identification. The child realizes that the loving and caring mother had been the target of paranoid attacks all this time. To compensate for the damage caused the child strives to make reparations to the relationship with the mother embodying the social reality.
For Klein depressive anxiety is a sign of progress. These psychic processes go on until the end of life. All this is undoubtedly reactivated by the play of that other mirror, the cinema screen, in this respect a veritable psychical substitute, a prosthesis for our primally dislocated limbs.
The reflection in the mirror starts the process of introjection and projective-identification that will go on until death. I put myself in the place of the character and try to see the film from his perspective.Object Relations Therapy Video
In a way I narcissistically try to situate myself in the context of the film as a whole person.