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It is a well established fact that the pilot who develops a "feel" for the airplane early in flight training will have little difficulty with advanced flight maneuvers. Pitch attitude is the angle formed by the longitudinal axis, and bank attitude is the angle formed by the lateral axis. Airplane attitude is based on relative positions of the nose and wings on the natural horizon. In attitude flying, airplane control is composed of four components: Pitch control is the control of the airplane about the lateral axis by using the elevator to raise and lower the nose in relation to the natural horizon.
Bank control is control of the airplane about the longitudinal axis by use of the ailerons to attain a desired bank angle in relation to the natural horizon. Power control is used when the flight situation indicates a need for a change in thrust. Trim is used to relieve all possible control pressures held after a desired attitude has been attained. The primary rule of attitude flying is: This means the use of outside references and flight instruments to establish and maintain desired flight attitudes and airplane performance.
Integrated or composite method of flight instruction. Although this method of airplane control may become second nature with experience, the beginning pilot must make a determined effort to master the technique.
The basic elements of which are as follows. If airplane performance, as indicated by flight instruments, indicates a need for correction, a specific amount of correction must be determined, then applied with reference to the natural horizon.
The pilot then maintains the corrected attitude by reference to the natural horizon. The pilot should become familiar with the relationship between outside references to the natural horizon and the corresponding indications on flight instruments inside the cockpit.
The use of integrated flight instruction does not, and is not intended to prepare pilots for flight in instrument weather conditions. The most common error made by the beginning student is to make pitch or bank corrections while still looking inside the cockpit.
Control pressure is applied, but the beginning pilot, not being familiar with the intricacies of flight by references to instruments, including such things as instrument lag and gyroscopic precession, will invariably make excessive attitude corrections and end up "chasing the instruments.
All other flight maneuvers are in essence a deviation from this fundamental flight maneuver. Many flight instructors and students are prone to believe that perfection in straight-and-level flight will come of itself, but such is not the case. It is not uncommon to find a pilot whose basic flying ability consistently falls just short of minimum expected standards, and upon analyzing the reasons for the shortcomings to discover that the cause is the inability to fly straight and level properly.
Straight-and-level flight is flight in which a constant heading and altitude are maintained.
It is accomplished by making immediate and measured corrections for deviations in direction and altitude from unintentional slight turns, descents, and climbs. Level flight, at first, is a matter of consciously fixing the relationship of the position of some portion of the airplane, used as a reference point, with the horizon. In establishing the reference points, the instructor should place the airplane in the desired position and aid the student in selecting reference points.
The instructor should be aware that no two pilots see this relationship exactly the same. It is, therefore, important that during the fixing of this relationship, the pilot sit in a normal manner; otherwise the points will not be the same when the normal position is resumed. In learning to control the airplane in level flight, it is important that the student be taught to maintain a light grip on the flight controls, and that the control forces desired be exerted lightly and just enough to produce the desired result.
The student should learn to associate the apparent movement of the references with the forces which produce it. Nose reference for straight-and-level flight. If altitude is being gained or lost, the pitch attitude should be readjusted in relation to the horizon and then the altimeter rechecked to determine if altitude is now being maintained.
The application of forward or back-elevator pressure is used to control this attitude. The pitch information obtained from the attitude indicator also will show the position of the nose relative to the horizon and will indicate whether elevator pressure is necessary to change the pitch attitude to return to level flight.
However, the primary reference source is the natural horizon. In all normal maneuvers, the term "increase the pitch attitude" implies raising the nose in relation to the horizon; the term "decreasing the pitch attitude" means lowering the nose. Wingtip reference for straight-and-level flight.
The objective of straight-and-level flight is to detect small deviations from laterally level flight as soon as they occur, necessitating only small corrections. Reference to the heading indicator should be made to note any change in direction. Continually observing the wingtips has advantages other than being the only positive check for leveling the wings.
This is noted only for assistance in learning straight-and level flight, and is not a recommended practice in normal operations. This not only gives the student a biased angle from which to judge, but also causes the student to exert unconscious pressure on the controls in that direction, which results in dragging a wing.
With the wings approximately level, it is possible to maintain straight flight by simply exerting the necessary forces on the rudder in the desired direction. However, the instructor should point out that the practice of using rudder alone is not correct and may make precise control of the airplane difficult. Straight-and-level flight requires almost no application of control pressures if the airplane is properly trimmed and the air is smooth.
For that reason, the student must not form the habit of constantly moving the controls unnecessarily. The student must learn to recognize when corrections are necessary, and then to make a measured response easily and naturally. To obtain the proper conception of the forces required on the rudder during straight-and-levelflight, the airplane must be held level. One of the most common faults of beginning students is the tendency to concentrate on the nose of the airplane and attempting to hold the wings level by observing the curvature of the nose cowling.
With this method, the reference line is very short and the deviation, particularly if very slight, can go unnoticed. Also, a very small deviation from level, by this short reference line, becomes considerable at the wingtips and results in an appreciable dragging of one wing.
This attitude requires the use of additional rudder to maintain straight flight, giving a false conception of neutral control forces. The habit of dragging one wing, and compensating with rudder pressure, if allowed to develop is particularly hard to break, and if not corrected will result in considerable difficulty in mastering other flight maneuvers.
For all practical purposes, the airspeed will remain constant in straight-and-level flight with a constant power setting. Practice of intentional airspeed changes, by increasing or decreasing the power, will provide an excellent means of developing proficiency in maintaining straight-and-level flight at various speeds. Significant changes in airspeed will, of course, require considerable changes in pitch attitude and pitch trim to maintain altitude.
Pronounced changes in pitch attitude and trim will also be necessary as the flaps and landing gear are operated. Common errors in the performance of straight-and-level flight are: Attempting to use improper reference points on the airplane to establish attitude.
Forgetting the location of preselected reference points on subsequent flights. Attempting to establish or correct airplane attitude using flight instruments rather than outside visual reference.
Airplane Flying Handbook/Basic flight maneuvers - Wikiversity
Attempting to maintain direction using only rudder control. Habitually flying with one wing low. Too tight a grip on the flight controls resulting in overcontrol and lack of feel. Pushing or pulling on the flight controls rather than exerting pressure against the airstream.
Head in the cockpit.
Airplane Flying Handbook/Basic flight maneuvers
Fixation on the nose pitch attitude reference point. Unnecessary or inappropriate control inputs. Failure to make timely and measured control inputs when deviations from straight-and-level flight are detected.
Inadequate attention to sensory inputs in developing feel for the airplane. TRIM CONTROL[ edit ] The airplane is designed so that the primary flight controls rudder, aileron, and elevator are streamlined with the nonmovable airplane surfaces when the airplane is cruising straight-and-level at normal weight and loading.
If the airplane is flying out of that basic balanced condition, one or more of the control surfaces is going to have to be held out of its streamlined position by continuous control input. The use of trim tabs relieves the pilot of this requirement. Proper trim technique is a very important and often overlooked basic flying skill. An improperly trimmed airplane requires constant control pressures, produces pilot tension and fatigue, distracts the pilot from scanning, and contributes to abrupt and erratic airplane attitude control.
Because of their relatively low power and speed, not all light airplanes have a complete set of trim tabs that are adjustable from the cockpit. In airplanes where rudder, aileron, and elevator trim are available, a definite sequence of trim application should be used. Attempts to trim the rudder at varying airspeed are impractical in propeller driven airplanes because of the change in the torque correcting offset of the vertical fin. Aileron trim should then be adjusted to relieve any lateral control yoke pressure.
A common trim control error is the tendency to overcontrol the airplane with trim adjustments. To avoid this the pilot must learn to establish and hold the airplane in the desired attitude using the primary flight controls.
The proper attitude should be established with reference to the horizon and then verified by reference to performance indications on the flight instruments. The pilot should then apply trim in the above sequence to relieve whatever hand and foot pressure had been required. The pilot must avoid using the trim to establish or correct airplane attitude. The airplane attitude must be established and held first, then control pressures trimmed out so that the airplane will maintain the desired attitude in "hands off" flight.
Attempting to "fly the airplane with the trim tabs" is a common fault in basic flying technique even among experienced pilots.
A properly trimmed airplane is an indication of good piloting skills. Any control pressures the pilot feels should be a result of deliberate pilot control input during a planned change in airplane attitude, not a result of pressures being applied by the airplane because the pilot is allowing it to assume control.
A specific angle of bank is selected by the pilot, control pressures applied to achieve the desired bank angle, and appropriate control pressures exerted to maintain the desired bank angle once it is established. Level turn to the left. Their functions are as follows. The ailerons bank the wings and so determine the rate of turn at any given airspeed. The elevator moves the nose of the airplane up or down in relation to the pilot, and perpendicular to the wings.
Doing that, it both sets the pitch attitude in the turn and "pulls" the nose of the airplane around the turn. The throttle provides thrust which may be used for airspeed to tighten the turn. The rudder offsets any yaw effects developed by the other controls.
The rudder does not turn the airplane. For purposes of this discussion, turns are divided into three classes: Change in lift causes airplane to turn. When an airplane is flying straight and level, the total lift is acting perpendicular to the wings and to the Earth. As the airplane is banked into a turn, the lift then becomes the resultant of two components. One, the vertical lift component, continues to act perpendicular to the Earth and opposes gravity. These two lift components act at right angles to each other, causing the resultant total lifting force to act perpendicular to the banked wing of the airplane.
It is the horizontal lift component that actually turns the airplane--not the rudder. When applying aileron to bank the airplane, the lowered aileron on the rising wing produces a greater drag than the raised aileron on the lowering wing.
Forces during a turn. To counteract this adverse yawing moment, rudder pressure must be applied simultaneously with aileron in the desired direction of turn.
This action is required to produce a coordinated turn. After the bank has been established in a medium banked turn, all pressure applied to the aileron may be relaxed. The airplane will remain at the selected bank with no further tendency to yaw since there is no longer a deflection of the ailerons. As a result, pressure may also be relaxed on the rudder pedals, and the rudder allowed to streamline itself with the direction of the slipstream.
Rudder pressure maintained after the turn is established will cause the airplane to skid to the outside of the turn. If a definite effort is made to center the rudder rather than let it streamline itself to the turn, it is probable that some opposite rudder pressure will be exerted inadvertently.
This will force the airplane to yaw opposite its turning path, causing the airplane to slip to the inside of the turn. The ball in the turn-andslip indicator will be displaced off-center whenever the airplane is skidding or slipping sideways. Indications of a slip and skid.
An essential basic airmanship skill is the ability of the pilot to sense or "feel" any uncoordinated condition slip or skid without referring to instrument reference. During this stage of training, the flight instructor should stress the development of this ability and insist on its use to attain perfect coordination in all subsequent training. In all constant altitude, constant airspeed turns, it is necessary to increase the angle of attack of the wing when rolling into the turn by applying up elevator.
This is required because part of the vertical lift has been diverted to horizontal lift. Thus, the total lift must be increased to compensate for this loss. To stop the turn, the wings are returned to level flight by the coordinated use of the ailerons and rudder applied in the opposite direction.
To understand the relationship between airspeed, bank, and radius of turn, it should be noted that the rate of turn at any given true airspeed depends on the horizontal lift component. The horizontal lift component varies in proportion to the amount of bank.
Therefore, the rate of turn at a given true airspeed increases as the angle of bank is increased. On the other hand, when a turn is made at a higher true airspeed at a given bank angle, the inertia is greater and the horizontal lift component required for the turn is greater, causing the turning rate to become slower. Angle of bank and airspeed regulate rate and radius of turn.
When changing from a shallow bank to a medium bank, the airspeed of the wing on the outside of the turn increases in relation to the inside wing as the radius of turn decreases. The additional lift developed because of this increase in speed of the wing balances the inherent lateral stability of the airplane. At any given airspeed, aileron pressure is not required to maintain the bank.
If the bank is allowed to increase from a medium to a steep bank, the radius of turn decreases further. The lift of the outside wing causes the bank to steepen and opposite aileron is necessary to keep the bank constant. As the radius of the turn becomes smaller, a significant difference develops between the speed of the inside wing and the speed of the outside wing.
The wing on the outside of the turn travels a longer circuit than the inside wing, yet both complete their respective circuits in the same length of time. Therefore, the outside wing travels faster than the inside wing, and as a result, it develops more lift. This creates an overbanking tendency that must be controlled by the use of the ailerons.
Overbanking tendency during a steep turn. This causes a slight slip during steep turns that must be corrected by use of the rudder. Sometimes during early training in steep turns, the nose may be allowed to get excessively low resulting in a significant loss in altitude.
To recover, the pilot should first reduce the angle of bank with coordinated use of the rudder and aileron, then raise the nose of the airplane to level flight with the elevator. If recovery from an excessively nose-low steep bank condition is attempted by use of the elevator only, it will cause a steepening of the bank and could result in overstressing the airplane. Normally, small corrections for pitch during steep turns are accomplished with the elevator, and the bank is held constant with the ailerons.
To establish the desired angle of bank, the pilot should use outside visual reference points, as well as the bank indicator on the attitude indicator. The best outside reference for establishing the degree of bank is the angle formed by the raised wing of low-wing airplanes the lowered wing of high-wing airplanes and the horizon, or the angle made by the top of the engine cowling and the horizon.
Also, information obtained from the attitude indicator will show the angle of the wing in relation to the horizon. Information from the turn coordinator, however, will not. It will affect the interpretation of outside visual references. At the beginning, the student may lean away from the turn in an attempt to remain upright in relation to the ground rather than ride with the airplane. This should be corrected immediately if the student is to properly learn to use visual references.
Right and wrong posture while seated in the airplane. This error is a characteristic of airplanes that have side-by-side seats because the pilot is seated to one side of the longitudinal axis about which the airplane rolls. This makes the nose appear to rise when making a left turn and to descend when making right turns. Beginning students should not use large aileron and rudder applications because this produces a rapid roll rate and allows little time for corrections before the desired bank is reached.
Slower small control displacement roll rates provide more time to make necessary pitch and bank corrections. As soon as the airplane rolls from the wings-level attitude, the nose should also start to move along the horizon, increasing its rate of travel proportionately as the bank is increased. The following variations provide excellent guides. If the nose starts to move before the bank starts, rudder is being applied too soon.
If the bank starts before the nose starts turning, or the nose moves in the opposite direction, the rudder is being applied too late.
If the nose moves up or down when entering a bank, excessive or insufficient up elevator is being applied. As the desired angle of bank is established, aileron and rudder pressures should be relaxed. This will stop the bank from increasing because the aileron and rudder control surfaces will be neutral in their streamlined position.
The up-elevator pressure should not be relaxed, but should be held constant to maintain a constant altitude. Throughout the turn, the pilot should cross-check the airspeed indicator, and if the airspeed has decreased more than 5 knots, additional power should be used.
The cross-check should also include outside references, altimeter, and vertical speed indicator VSIwhich can help determine whether or not the pitch attitude is correct. If gaining or losing altitude, the pitch attitude should be adjusted in relation to the horizon, and then the altimeter and VSI rechecked to determine if altitude is being maintained. During all turns, the ailerons, rudder, and elevator are used to correct minor variations in pitch and bank just as they are in straight-and-level flight.
The rollout from a turn is similar to the roll-in except the flight controls are applied in the opposite direction. Aileron and rudder are applied in the direction of the rollout or toward the high wing. As the angle of bank decreases, the elevator pressure should be relaxed as necessary to maintain altitude. Since the airplane will continue turning as long as there is any bank, the rollout must be started before reaching the desired heading.
The amount of lead required to roll out on the desired heading will depend on the degree of bank used in the turn. Normally, the lead is one-half the degrees of bank.
As the wings become level, the control pressures should be smoothly relaxed so that the controls are neutralized as the airplane returns to straight-andlevel flight.
As the rollout is being completed, attention should be given to outside visual references, as well as the attitude and heading indicators to determine that the wings are being leveled and the turn stopped.
Instruction in level turns should begin with medium turns, so that the student has an opportunity to grasp the fundamentals of turning flight without having to deal with overbanking tendency, or the inherent stability of the airplane attempting to level the wings. The instructor should not ask the student to roll the airplane from bank to bank, but to change its attitude from level to bank, bank to level, and so on with a slight pause at the termination of each phase.
This pause allows the airplane to free itself from the effects of any misuse of the controls and assures a correct start for the next turn. During these exercises, the idea of control forces, rather than movement, should be emphasized by pointing out the resistance of the controls to varying forces applied to them. The beginning student should be encouraged to use the rudder freely.
Skidding in this phase indicates positive control use, and may be easily corrected later. The use of too little rudder, or rudder use in the wrong direction at this stage of training, on the other hand, indicates a lack of proper conception of coordination.
Often, during the entry or recovery from a bank, the nose will describe a vertical arc above or below the horizon, and then remain in proper position after the bank is established. This is the result of lack of timing and coordination of forces on the elevator and rudder controls during the entry and recovery. It indicates that the student has a knowledge of correct turns, but that entry and recovery techniques are in error. Because the elevator and ailerons are on one control, and pressures on both are executed simultaneously, the beginning pilot is often apt to continue pressure on one of these unintentionally when force on the other only is intended.
This is particularly true in left-hand turns, because the position of the hands makes correct movements slightly awkward at first. This is sometimes responsible for the habit of climbing slightly in right-hand turns and diving slightly in left-hand turns.
This results from many factors, including the unequal rudder pressures required to the right and to the left when turning, due to the torque effect. The tendency to climb in right-hand turns and descend in left-hand turns is also prevalent in airplanes having side-by-side cockpit seating.
This makes the nose appear to rise during a correctly executed left turn and to descend during a correctly executed right turn. An attempt to keep the nose on the same apparent level will cause climbing in right turns and diving in left turns. Excellent coordination and timing of all the controls in turning requires much practice.
It is essential that this coordination be developed, because it is the very basis of this fundamental flight maneuver. If the body is properly relaxed, it will act as a pendulum and may be swayed by any force acting on it. During a skid, it will be swayed away from the turn, and during a slip, toward the inside of the turn. The same effects will be noted in tendencies to slide on the seat.
As the "feel" of flying develops, the properly directed student will become highly sensitive to this last tendency and will be able to detect the presence of, or even the approach of, a slip or skid long before any other indication is present. Common errors in the performance of level turns are: Failure to adequately clear the area before beginning the turn. Attempting to execute the turn solely by instrument reference. Attempting to sit up straight, in relation to the ground, during a turn, rather than riding with the airplane.
Fixating on the nose reference while excluding wingtip reference. Holding rudder in the turn. Gaining proficiency in turns in only one direction usually the left.
Failure to coordinate the use of throttle with other controls. In a climb, weight no longer acts in a direction perpendicular to the flightpath. It acts in a rearward direction.
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This causes an increase in total drag requiring an increase in thrust power to balance the forces. An airplane can only sustain a climb angle when there is sufficient thrust to offset increased drag; therefore, climb is limited by the thrust available.
Like other maneuvers, climbs should be performed using outside visual references and flight instruments. It is important that the pilot know the engine power settings and pitch attitudes that will produce the following conditions of climb.
The additional airspeed provides better engine cooling, easier control, and better visibility over the nose. Normal climb is sometimes referred to as "cruise climb. This condition of climb will produce the most gain in altitude in the least amount of time maximum rate of climb in feet per minute. The best rate of climb made at full allowable power is a maximum climb. It must be fully understood that attempts to obtain more climb performance than the airplane is capable of by increasing pitch attitude will result in a decrease in the rate of altitude gain.
Best angle-of-climb airspeed VX is considerably lower than best rate of climb VYand is the airspeed where the most excess thrust is available over that required for level flight.
The best angle of climb will result in a steeper climb path, although the airplane will take longer to reach the same altitude than it would at best rate of climb. The best angle of climb, therefore, is used in clearing obstacles after takeoff. Best angle of climb vs.
The point at which these two speeds meet is the absolute ceiling of the airplane. The pilot must be prepared for this. As a climb is started, the airspeed will gradually diminish. This reduction in airspeed is gradual because of the initial momentum of the airplane. The thrust required to maintain straight-and-level flight at a given airspeed is not sufficient to maintain the same airspeed in a climb.
Fantasising about other people is normal too. But if you're doing it all the time, and the thought of your real partner brings you up in a rash, that's a bad sign. Degges-White said if you're too exhausted or burned out to have sex, that's fine. It's about whether you still find each other attractive or not. You start to hate their habits. At the beginning of a relationship, everything seems perfect. You're more likely to give them the benefit of the doubt for their behaviours, and all their habits seem cute and endearing.
Fast forward a few months or years, and those little quirks might seem excruciatingly annoying. Degges-White said if you can't stand the way your partner is chewing their food, clicking their fingers, or anything else, it's probably got more to do with you than them. In fact, it can sometimes be the healthiest way to resolve an issue, as long as you do it in the right way. So the occasional row isn't a sign you're wrong for each other.
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However, minor disagreements that always blow up into screaming matches are not healthy. And if you're point scoring, always bringing up the past, or trying to hurt each other, you're not trying to move forward — you're pushing each other away. It's not going anywhere. Nobody wants to be in a dead end relationship that seems to be going nowhere. Degges-White said if you think your partner is trying to change for the better, you should give them some space to do it.
But if they listen to your worries, and dismiss them rather than engaging, that's a red flag.